Monday, June 18, 2012

Mary Everest Boole

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Mary Everest Boole was born in 18 in England. At the age of five, Mary’s family moved to France due to the serious illness of Mary’s father, Dr. Thomas Everest. It was during these years that Mary began learning math from her tutor, Monsieur Deplace. His way of teaching made it easy for Mary to comprehend her studies. At the age of eleven, Mary’s family moved back to England where Mary was taken out of school to become her fathers assistant. Her father was a minister. Mary taught a Sunday School class and sometimes helped her father with his sermons. But, Mary didn’t end studying. She used her father’s books to teach herself calculus. She liked math, but Mary couldn’t get any of her unanswered questions solved. When Mary went to visit her aunt and uncle in Cork, Western Ireland, she got her questions answered. Her uncle, George Everest, introduced Mary to George Boole, a famous mathematician. Mary cherished her time with Boole. George tutored Mary in math and she learned so much from him. After she went back to England, Mary wrote to Boole. Two years later, George came to England to teach Mary more math. Also at this time, George was writing a book, Laws of Thought, and Mary contributed mainly as an editor.

A few years later, Marys father died and George was a great friend throughout this difficult time in Marys life. From this, a serious relationship grew, and in 1855, they married. They had a successful marriage. Mary and George had five daughters named Mary, Margaret, Alicia, Lucy, and Ethel in the next nine years. But sadly, this happiness didn’t last long. George caught pneumonia and died in 1864 leaving Mary devastated and left alone with her youngest child of six months old.

The next year, Mary took a job at Queens College. During this era, women couldn’t receive degrees or teach at the college, so Mary acquired a job as a librarian. Soon, Mary was an unofficial mentor to the students. She realized that she was good at teaching.

In time, Mary started to teach children. Even the Head of the London Board of Education recognized Mary as an outstanding teacher. A pupil wrote later on, I thought we were being amused not taught. But after I left I found Mary had given us a power. We can think for ourselves, and find out what we want to know.

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Mary had to leave her job at the college because there was controversy over one of the books she had written. Mary became a secretary to her fathers associate, James Hinton. Through Hinton, Mary became fascinated about evolution and the art of thinking. She thought that it was possible to convey all basic ideas of the universe with numbers and symbols. At the age of 50, Mary began writing a series of books and articles, publishing them regularly until the time of her death. She also created string geometry in order to assist children learning about the geometry of angles and spaces.

As time went on, Marys physical condition began to deteriorate. In 116 at the age of 84, she passed away. Mary Everest Boole was an astonishing woman who raised her five daughters alone and made immeasurable contributions towards the mathematical teaching of numerous girls and boys.

Considering herself a mathematical psychologist, Mary’s goal was to strive ...to understand how people, and especially children, learned mathematics and science, using the reasoning parts of their minds, their physical bodies, and their unconscious processes. Many of Mary Booles contributions can be seen in classrooms across the globe today.

Bibliography

http//www.agnesscott.edu/lriddle/women/boole.htm /0/0

http//www.uz.ac.zw/science/maths/zimaths/marybool.htm /0/0

http//www.sjsu.edu/depts/Museum/boole.html /0/0

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Tuesday, June 5, 2012

Going home

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Alexander, while walking in Toronto, reminisces the constant stream of people outside the Renco mining boarding grounds. He tells how the security guard rejects the constant groups of people trying to gain entry to the grounds. All kinds of lame excuses (p17) are used by the outsiders, though nothing renders the guard to let them in.

One day he and his brother outside the camping ground relieving themselves of their work duties are drawn to a familiar Gaelic tune. They come upon a stranger named James MacDonald. Because he is MacDonald, and part of the clan’, Calum smuggles his so called ‘cousin’ into the compound and offers him food. After eating he continues to play his fiddle. The music is soothing and the clan plays their instruments to accompany him, surprisingly the French Canadians join in.

Despite the French Canadians and the clan’s tensions with each other, the two group’s differently cultured rhythms and tempo provide a friendly unifying experience.

The supervisor of mines calls a stop to the music and demands that the stranger leaves the grounds, though Calum arranges his newfound relative to work in the mines with the rest of the clan. However due to James’ build and strength he retires and leaves the compound. A thank you gift left for Calum and Alexander for their hospitality.

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Analysis The theme of ‘looking after your own blood’ is again reinforced in a manner of accepting a strange that had the same surname as the rest of clan. However there is a twist, James is not actually Scottish but Indian. Nonetheless blood ties ignore the difference in race. Calum giving money to him for James’ work shift, which he can barely manage, further emphasize the helping nature of Calum.

The music and songs the French Canadians and the clan plays are also significant and a contrasting point as the music unify the miners, despite language difficulties and cultural barriers.

This scene is somewhat ironic as we see both clans interacting musically as a new member is introducing to the ‘Clann Chalum Ruaidh’. Later on, where the American Alexander Macdonald is present, another stranger where Calum brings into the compound, a fight scene erupts and Calum kills Picard. While in the first case, Calum is gifted by James with the moose meat, Calum is betrayed as the American Alexander is guilty of stealing the French Canadians possessions.



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friend ship

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We are social creatures. We surround ourselves with other human beings, our friends. It is in our nature. We are constantly trying to broaden the circumference of our circle of friends. Aristotle understood the importance of friendship, books VIII and IX of the Nicomachean Ethics deal solely with this topic. A modern day definition of a friend can be defined as “one joined to another in intimacy and mutual benevolence independently of sexual or family love”. (Oxford English Dictionary). Aristotle’s view on friendship is much broader than this. His arguments are certainly not flawless. In this essay I will outline what Aristotle said about friendship in the Nichomachaen Ethics and highlight possible flaws in his arguments. Friendship for Aristotle (and Greeks in general), as mentioned above, is much broader than the definition given in the O.E.D. Aristotle regards less intimate bonds as friendships as well as the intimate relationship in the modern definition. Relationships between husband and wife, father and son, neighbors, business partners, team members, members of a political party, teacher and student, etc would all be viewed as friendships in Aristotle’s eyes (Russell McNeil). However he does distinguish between different types of friendship. Friendships for Aristotle can be divided into three main categories. 1. Friendships of Utility . Friendships of Pleasure . Friendships of Virtue. 1. Friendships of Utility Friendships of utility are based on people who are useful to each other. This is the sole reason behind them being friends. A good example of a friendship of utility might be the relationship between a car salesman and a car buyer (John L. Fjellstad). The car salesman needs the buyer because he has to make a living and the buyer needs the salesman because he needs a car. Both have something the other wants. These friendships do not last very long as once the buyer is no longer useful to the salesman, or visa versa, the connection is severed and the friendship ceases to be. Friendships of utility are common among old people, for in old age people pursue the useful rather than the pleasant. . Friendships of Pleasure Friendships of pleasure are based on the amount of pleasure the people get from being in the relationship. People who go to football matches together, or who go to the pub together might be in this type of relationship. They are friends for their own sake, because the friendship brings them pleasure and enjoyment, not for their friend’s sake. Friendships of pleasure are common among young people. Young people quickly become friends and quickly cease to be friends because what pleasures them changes constantly. . Friendships of Virtue Friendships of virtue, unlike friendships of utility and pleasure, which can include a circle of friends, are strictly one on one relationships. These types of friendships can only occur between two people of the same virtues and both persons have to be virtuous. One can only become virtuous through wisdom and age. Therefore friendships of virtue are not found among young people. It is a relationship of mutual respect and love. The persons in this type of relationship are not in it because they gain something from the relationship, they are not friends because they find each other useful or bring each other pleasure, but because they see virtues in each other that they see in themselves. They wish well for their friends for their friend’s sake. It is not surprising that such relationships are rare according to Aristotle. Aristotle says that a friend or virtue is another oneself, they are soulmates. A friend or virtue is a key part to self-sufficiency. Virtuous friends spend time with each other and make the same choices as each other. Friend A’s happiness contributes to friend B’s happiness and visa versa. The friend, in the Aristotelian scheme, becomes an extension of yourself. It can be argued that Aristotle is wrong when he distinguishes between friendships of utility or pleasure and friendships of virtue. Are we as human beings capable of doing a completely unselfish act? Can we truthfully say that we are friends with someone not for our own sake but for the sake of the friends? Personally I disagree with Aristotle on this. Take the example of Mr Jones giving Mr Smith a gift, let’s say a CD. Is he giving Ms Smith this gift because he knows Mr Smith will like it or because Mr Smith will think better of Mr Jones, or because he hopes that Mr Smith will get him a nice gift sometime? There can be any number of reasons why Mr Jones would give Mr Smith a gift but in my opinion the most feasible reasons would be ones where Mr Jones expects to get some form of repayment, even if that is only Mr Smith liking Mr Jones as a person more. No act is completely selfless, take an old lady about to cross a busy road, would you help her because she needs help or because you would feel a great deal of self-satisfaction by helping her. In my opinion, even if only a small part of the reason why you would help her, self-satisfaction would play a part in you’re reasoning to help her. We are inherently selfish beings. There is always a degree of self-interest. Therefore Aristotle’s definition of friendship of virtue is wrong, in my opinion, or at least too exclusive. Kant also has problems with Aristotle’s definition of friendship. Kant believed that an act could only have moral value if and only if you were not the primary beneficiary of the act. According to Kant with Aristotle’s theory of friendship it seems the friendship can not be a moral goal. A friendship is “morally neutral”. It does not say anything about your moral character. Of course Aristotle would disagree he would say having a friend of virtue is a goal that every moral person should strive for (John L. Fjellstad). Kant believes that people don’t seek friendship for friendship’s sake but to satisfy needs. Kant sees true friendship as two people taking care of the other’s needs. If I take care of my friend’s needs he will take care of my needs. Kant believes that a truly virtuous man is friends with everyone and should not limit himself to a select few friends, as this would be being exclusive. He should love everyone equally. However friendships by definition are exclusive, and as a result one is forced to play favoritism. According to Kant friendships are the have of people of lesser virtues blocking out the world. Aristotle would disagree though, he would say friendships are the way into the world. Kant has a somewhat negative view of friendship whereas Aristotle thinks friendship is good and therefor sought by everyone. Aristotle’s basic idea of dividing friendship into sections, utility, pleasure and virtue, is good but it can be said that his ideals are too high. Can he be right in saying that only virtuous people can have true friendships? The rest of us with lesser virtues are left with friendships of utility and friendships of pleasure, as only a select few can be truly virtuous. Many would be offended by this and many would believe that although they may not have friendships of virtue as Aristotle meant it they are not inferior and are true friendships all the same (John L. Fjellstad). It would be better if Aristotle made it clear that it is possible for everyone to experience true friendship and not limited it to ‘virtuous’ people. If virtue is attained by age and wisdom does that not mean that everyone is potentially virtuous and therefore everyone can potentially be in a virtuous friendship. Personally I think there are many flaws in Aristotle’s views on friendship. The main ones being that he is too elitist, too exclusive when it comes too defining true friendship and too inclusive when it comes to friendships of utility, e.g. I don’t see the coalman as being my friend even though by Aristotle’s definition of friendship of utility we are friends. Aristotle does however make many good arguments, and does a good job with dividing up friendship into categories. It allows us to look at friendship in a more structured way and lets us evaluate different friendships in our life. In this essay I have outlined some of Aristotle’s views on friendship as he discussed in the Nichomachaen Ethics, books VIII and XI. I have also given my own arguments on why I do not agree with certain arguments made by Aristotle and the arguments of Kant, also in opposition of Aristotle, as well as Aristotle’s counter arguments.

Bibliography

Aristotle; Nicomachean Ethics; ed. by Richard McKeon; Book VIII-IX Clancey, R, Friendship According to Aristotle, 7th Nov 001 [date accessed] Fjellstad, John L, Aristotle’s Account of True Friendship, 7th November 001 [date accessed]. Ross, W.D, Exerpts From Aristotle’s Ethics, 7th Nov 001 [date accessed] Russell, J.S., Aristotle on Friendship, 7th Nov 001 [date accessed] Russell McNeil, Aristotle on Friendship, 7th November 001 [date accessed]. http//www.mala.bc.ca/~mcneil/lec1c.htm

Word Count 144

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Sharing Is Against The Law

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Peer-to-peer file sharing over the Internet was thought to be the wave of the future by many computer experts. When peer-to-peer file sharing technology was developed, record label executives didn’t know what to think; the leaders of the music industry thought that music as a marketable part of the economy was finished. Since the leaders of the music industry figured that most people have a computer nowadays, anyone could download music from the Internet for free. If everyone could download music for free and purchase the technology to burn their own CDs, no one would buy a CD from the store ever again. What was once a fantasy became a reality and put fear in the eyes of record executives. The leaders of the music industry believed the development of file sharing technology was their doom because they couldn’t create enough revenue to stay in business. Music label executives were outraged that the government allowed free music to be downloaded from the Internet. So the record labels took legal action against Napster. The record industry executives ended up winning the trial and Napster was shut down. It turns out that even though Napster ran successfully for many months the music industry remained financially healthy. Peer-to-peer file sharing capabilities, such as Napster, should be allowed to operate on the Internet because it creates world wide recognition, strengthen the economy, and make the music industry more successful.

The dispute between Napster and the music industry went on for many months. The reason nothing was done about Napster in the begining is because there weren’t any laws to protect the music industry from this kind of technology. The only hang up that the government found with Napster’s service was they detected unlawful use because Napster was keeping files downloaded to their own server from various users. The reason Napster chose to operate this way wasn’t to disregard authority or infringe on copyrights, but to make files easy to download for users. The government stated that Napster was harboring songs on their servers illegally. Instead of the end user being to blame, Napster was held responsible because they were the only ones that controlled what was downloaded to their servers. Napster was set up with three gigantic servers that served the entire world. When users signed on to Napster their music files were then downloaded to Napster’s server for other users that happened to sign on to that particular server to download. Since Napster’s servers were the direct sources that users were downloading from, the government passed a law that stated a company has no right to distribute songs to other users without prior written permission or else they would be subject to penalties of copyright infringement.

To avoid copyright infringement file sharing companies started to play dumb. The only difference between Napster and file sharing applications today such as WinMx, Blubster, and Morpheus, is that the applications allowed today are not downloading directly from the companie’s servers. The way that the government is allowing free file sharing to go on now is that the parent company can ONLY provide the application, not the servers. This means that the users are only using the capabilities of that particular application. This allows users to download and upload files directly from other users. These two concepts sound similar, but the government ruled that only the companies servers couldn’t be downloaded from. Instead the new versions of today only allow users to download directly from other users. This is said to be legal because there is no way the law can stop every little person from sharing over the internet because that would be impossible. The government will only prosecute the companies because the Government has the right to regulate them.

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The verdict brought against Napster is unjust. The Government’s job isn’t to pass laws in order to stifle the creativity of Americans, but to provide equal rights for everyone. The only reason that Napster should have rightfully been abolished is if the Government saw this situation as immoral. However, developing the technology to share files on the internet should be greatly rewarded, not taken away. The only thing wrong with the great technology developed by Napster is its controversy over moral standards, not unlawfulness. Therefore, the Government shouldn’t have abolished Napster.

Not only is file sharing morally wrong but the leaders of the music industry say that people who engage in file sharing are stealing money from the music artists. This is a far fetched idea because we can dub cassettes and they don’t have any objection to that. There was one instance where I thought someone took this technology a little bit too far. A close personal friend of mine, let’s call him John Doe, actually sold homemade cd’s that he had downloaded from the internet. John created a system when it came to downloading music from the internet. Before he left for school in the morning he would download people’s entire songlists. Since he had DSL, he highlighted everyone’s name and left his computer downloading the entire time he was t school so none of his time was wasted. After he had accumulated thousand upon thousands of songs he decided to make songlists. Being that John’s dad worked for a printing company it was free and didn’t put any wear and tear on his printer. He made about 100 songlists of every song that he downloaded and distributed to people that wanted “burned “ cd’s. he made a stipulation that only 5 dollars a cd with the maximum of 15 songs. The first couple of weeks John couldn’t keep up with all the sales. As he downloaded more songs and made more songlists he decided that just one school wasn’t enough anymore. He tried to move his business into other schools. He had people he knew in almost every catholic highschool in St. Louis. The way John encouraged people to distribute songlists and collect money for him was to cut them a deal and make them CDs for a dollar a piece. This business went on until people caught on to his game and started buying CD burners for theirself. The downloading of John’s music and the printing & distribution of his lists didn’t cost a thing. The blank CDs John acquired were from his mom (she worked at a computer technologies warehouse) so they were free too. John worked at circuit city because he was given discounts on merchandise and free computer upgrades. Close to graduation Senior year of Highschool a couple of people were curious at how much he actually brought in during his business. He saved all his sales in a Microsoft Excel file so he had numbers according to year. The total amount of money that was illegally collected rounded off to about 0,000 dollars a year. That means that his grand total over the course of his business was 80-0 thousand dollars.

This was only one instance where someone took full advantage of this free technology. Imagine of all the money throughout the Unites States that was made illegally and should’ve went to record labels and music artists. I would be a little mad also if I knew that my hard earned money was going to someone else just because he had a computer with internet access and a cd burner. Its awful to steal people’s money because it is both dishonest and immoral. The real reason the record industry executives don’t want people to share files over the Internet is because the users are getting something for nothing. But it turns out that the users arent getting something for nothing because the users provide music artists with perks that wouldn’t have been without file sharing over the internet.

The process of file sharing over the internet creates recognition for all whos music is avaliable to download. Music artists that are only famous in America have a chance at becoming world wide celeberties. Converting to a world wide celeberty from a local celeberty provides artists with opputnunitites at more concerts, more CD sales, and travel the world while doing what they love. This will eventually bring them more income as well. Its worth risking CD sales in America because the revenue from world wide CD sales will make it all worth while. Also, artists that are famous among foreign countries may not be heard in America. File sharing may also develop a link between foreign artists and their success in America. Before Napster made file sharing popular, the chances of hearing an artist from a foreign land was unheard of. So not only does this help artists in the U.S., but it helps those from around the world as well. Along with foreign artists becoming famous in America, a different genre of music altogether may be adopted by the U.S. A different genre of music doesn’t always have to be different in terms of stylistic content, but it can be as simple as music from another language. This may help to inspire new artists of all languages. It was pretty selfish for the american music industry to cut this technology off because file sharing would have tremendously helped music world wide, not only in America.

Not only do artists who have already established theirself in the music industry have anything to gain, but the little people as well. Not small in stature, but small in recognition. Many small music bands and groups have earned a chance in the spotlight due to word of mouth through Napster. This gives the talented artists that have not yet been discovered a chance at success. File sharing isnt the only form of publicity, but it is free and efficient. It is a perfect way for a local group to get heard by a prestogeous record label. Since the local group doesn’t have enough money to advertise, file sharing over the internet provides publicity for free. Even if it only allows a group a local performance in front of a minimal crowd, it is step up. If a group performs in the right place at the right time, they might end up being seen by a scout who can refer them to a record label. Along with a local band being made successful, local labels have a chance to be seen also. A local label that produces local talent may hit it big also. The scouts in the music industry are always looking for labels to produce local talent that has never been heard before. This will help promote new faces in the music industry which will lead to fufilling get rich quick dreams. All the new money that is being made and harvested will end up right back in the economy and strengthen it.

A new trend with file sharing will help the economy not only in a way from a music artists standpoint, but also a business point of view. File sharing has a sole componant; computers. Computers are a luxery item and quickly becoming a necessity. File sharing will increase the sales in computers. Not just any computer because in order for a computer to run efficiently and download files to its hard drive it must have minimum specifications. This includes a gigantic hard drive, more ram, larger buswidth, and faster internet connections. All of these custom specifications cost more than a regular computer. With an increase in computer sales comes an increase in “plug-N-play” adaptions like a CR-Riter. A CD-Riter, otherwise known as a CD-R, cost a pretty penny also and compliments the sales of blank CDs too. Along to compliment a superior computer sales, many people are moving to high speed internet conncetions such as DSL, cable, Satalite, and T. These connections are not a one time purchase either, one has to pay every month to keep it connected and the prices range from thirty to one hundred and fifty dollars a month. All the money spent and even the creation has to pay thanks to file sharing. Without these advances in technology, file sharing would be next to useless and a waste of time. The creation of file sharing has opened the door to many new breakthroughs in computer technology. With these breakthroughs, the world will evolve in to a more technology based society and bring inventions to the next level; things that were never dreampt possible.

Regardless of how many people took advantage of this technology, the initial money lost in this market isn’t signifigant enough to hurt the music industry. The positive aspects of this situation outweigh the negative aspects by a long shot; in favor of the music industry. Since the idea of the record industry executives to abolish Napster, the popularity of music has declined. The action from the record industry toward Napster gave the record industry a bad name. All of a sudden record industry executives assume that record sales would plumit due to the operation of Napster. Although this thought is logical, the rationale behind it isn’t there. It wasn’t there because if it were, then the record industry would have sat down and thought of all the pros and cons to their actions. This is an example of the record industry trying to fix something before the problem has started. Among other reasons, I believe that greed plays the biggest role in their decision to get rid of Napster. The record industry has been price gouging for years; someone finally had enough and took it into their own hands to provide a solution. Now that we, as a society, have leveled the playing field the record industry can’t take it and “threw a fit.” The music industry didn’t wait long enough to see what kind of impact Napster would have made in the long run, and that’s where they lost the battle. If anything, the record industry should have paid Napster to stay in business because it would’ve made the record indistry more successful.

Napster brought the avalibility of music to an all new high. Since swaping music files is free, just about everyone in the world had access. Not to get caught in a “Slippery Slope”, but the more music that Napster made avalible for the public, the more people are prone to listen. People don’t only listen to their favorite genre, but the idea of file sharing has opened a whole new realm of possiblities for music that one might enjoy. For example, I enjoy Rap and Rock, but once Napster made music avalible I have never heard before I was interested in sampling. Now I listen to a style of music classified as techno. I would have never thought techno would be my music genre of choice. Since the avalibility of music has increased, there has also been an increase in record sales as well. Had the record industry taken these factors into account, they might have seen that their hasty decisions to abolish Napster ended up costing money instead of protecting it. Another direction the record industry might’ve gone, if only to save its good name, is to be a mediator instead of the bully in the market. If the record industry would have played it safe and not stirred up a big ruchus, they would be doing better than ever right now.

The problem that most people see about the lawsuit filed against Napster was that the technology was intellectual property and they had no right to take it away. I agree, but it did look bad from the artists perspective too. That’s why the leaders of the music industry need to reach a compromise withfile sharing applications. If the executives of the record labels would have reaches a compromise from the beginning, it wouldn’t have been that hard because nobody developed an opinion about the situation yet. One way that leaders from the music industry could have met halfway would be to sell the copyrights of various songs to the applications, so that both parties can get something out of it.

Another way to compromise, already thought of by Apple computers, would be to charge a flat rate for each song that is downloaded. Apple has just introduced its new software called iTunes. It is just like the original fils sharing application, Napster, but since it has a price on the song, it is allowed. Not only are the songs only cents each, this software allows the user to burn the songs unlimitedly to CDs for personal use. This is an attempt to lure people away from the file sharing internet services that are free, and blamed for slumping CD sales.

Another easy way to produce a solution between the executives of the music industry and file sharing users is to subscribe to a monthly service that costs a fixed amount each month that the user wishes to download songs from the internet. Attached to that monthly fee will be an unlimited amount of songs and downloading time. This seems to be a feasible and legal solution to a complex and drawn out battle.

The most attractive way to present legal file sharing capabilities would be to have a reputable company to sign an agreement with the record labels for free use of all their songs. The user should be able to pick which plan he/she would like to follow though. Give users choices like, either pay per song, or by the byte that you download. Maybe to offer a monthly subscription or charge them a flat rate for the time they actually spend downloading songs. Another choice could be to pay extra for complete security from virus’. If the company gives the user choices, then they feel like thay are in control. It makes a person feel better when he/she is able to customize their own application. If a user is faced with a decision to pay an outrageous monthly fee and they only download one or two songs a month it wouldn’t be worth it. So, not only for comfort reasons but quality as well.



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Tae-bo and prenatal yoga

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Tae-bo and prenatal yoga. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Tae-bo and prenatal yoga paper right on time.

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I have tried and reviewed two workout videos. I tried tae-bo advanced for six months and prenatal yoga for pregnant woman for months. There is definitely a big difference in the two videos which will be explained further.

1) Tae-bo advanced- This workout is an hour long advanced kickboxing workout. This work out is good for individuals who are tired of the basic workout or for people who really want to make advancements in their exercise routine. This video consists of a five to ten minute warm-up. After the warm-up you go into the workout which consists of about 5 minutes of kickboxing routines. This includes jabs, kicks, punches, and a variety of other fun-filled exercises that keep your heart pumping. Then you do a ten to fifteen minute floor work. Working your legs, stomach, arms, and every part of your body. Then it finishes off with a five minute cool down.

). Prenatal Yoga- This is a forty five minute prenatal workout for expectant mothers. This workout consists of prenatal yoga and stretches for the expectant mother in mind. This exercise video even has a 0 minute salsa routine that helps raise your heart rate a little bit to get aerobic benefits. This video has a segment of kegels which are designed to help the expectant mother through labor easier and to help tighten the pelvic muscles.

The only things in comparison with these two videos are that they both provide a good stretching segment in them and they both work the major muscles of the body. Tae-bo advanced is a workout video for the more advanced exercisers. Tae-bo shouldn’t be used by the expectant mother. Prenatal workout video consists of more easy and relaxing exercises that help prepare and expectant mother for labor. Tae-bo is good for losing weight and strengthening your muscles. Yoga is more of a relaxing workout that helps relieves stress. Overall, Tae-bo will be used after I give birth and the yoga video will be used for my pregnancy.

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Monday, June 4, 2012

avon

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1. Organizational Mission

Avon’s mission is to be the company that best understands and satisfies the product, service, and self-fulfillment needs of women globally. Its dedication to supporting women touches not only beauty � but health, fitness, self-empowerment and financial independence (7).

Avon is the worlds largest direct seller and sixth largest global beauty company focusing on selling products directly to customers; maintain a good image of company and developing a domestic and international network of sales agents (1).

. Corporate Objectives

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The company was founded in 1886 by a New York book salesperson named David H. McConnell and continued to influence and setting the direction and the long-term goals for the company throughout its history. The Objectives and principles of corporation is still influenced on decision making on the corporation.

(1) To provide individuals an opportunity to earn in support of their well being and happiness.

() To serve families throughout the world with products of the highest quality backed by a guarantee of satisfaction.

() To render a service to customers that is outstanding in its helpfulness and courtesy.

(4) To give full recognition to employees and representatives, on whose contribution Avon depends.

(5) To share with others the rewarding of growth and success. ()



. Corporate-level Strategies

Product Diversification

Avon developed brand new line of product to appeal to customers who are craved the elegance of those brands. The beComing line of products could not purchased from independent representatives and priced higher than Avon’s other stores to compete with prestige of products like Lanc�me or Estee Lauder. However, it was less expensive than departmental brands (1).

Market penetration

Avon’s the first strategy to penetrate market rate is to improve the company’s image by improving of packaging. According to company’s research, Avon’s largely working middle class women customers could not afford prestige band like Lanc�me or Estee Lauder but craved the elegance of those products ().

Also Andrea added nearly 50 percents to Avon’s R&D budget during her fist fiscal year as CEO and demanded that company’s researchers develop innovative new items within two years instead of the company’s usual product develop time of three plus years to faster delivery of new items (1).

Unrelated diversification

Avon’s R&D personnel collaborated with pharmaceutical manufactures Roche Holding, Ltd., in developing of vitamins and supplements designed to promote general health or address health problems like lack of energy, poor memory, stress, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, loss of bone density, and hormone imbalance (1).

Other wellness products included aromatherapy products, books, videos, music, and teas (1).



Joint Venture

Avon’s initial agreement with Sears and JCPenny called for 15 Avon centers in 001. Avon centers in 75 JCPenny stores and launch of its beComing CFT line with 400 different upscale prestige packaging and value pricing helped market for a new retail line of cosmetics (1).

Business-level Strategy

Best-Cost strategy

Avon is the best-cost provider aiming at more value for the money. The company continuously achieve trust the working, middle class women who are too busy and could not afford prestige brands. In order to become a best cost provider, Jung wanted to added 50 percent to support development of excellent quality of products at a lower cost than rivals. The best cost strategy is very appealing CFT industries since most of buyers are middle class that prefer excellent products with midrange priced products.



4. External Analysis

Opportunities

Develop more products contain natural ingredients

A growing number of companies are developing vitamin-packed cosmetics that at once are designed to nourish the skin and avoid the synthetic ingredients that may provoke skin irritations and other adverse reactions.

Cosmetic products for men

The skincare industry regards the male skincare and cosmetics market as the next major area for growth. Although men are spending more time on personal care, they often are afraid to ask questions. Products that are simple and portable are more likely to be successful.

Of primary concern for the male market is simplicity and masculinity of packaging. Designs imitating other personal care products they use daily will help men feel more comfortable. The category remains relatively underdeveloped compared with the myriad of products in female beauty (5).

Cosmetics for babies

Recent years have seen major moves in products (products that do not contain heavy chemicals, but are often stickier and whiter) for babies, a market that has continued to expand as parents realize the importance of beginning sun protection early.

Threats

Political environment

Avon was the first and largest international direct seller in China from 10 until April 18. when direct sale was banned by the Chinese government, Avon quickly found a retail stores to process sale of Avon products while (1)

A direct selling is considered old fashion and outdated for developed country

Direct selling representatives does not allow for a highly trained sales force. The Sales force is trained with video tape and education material that is provided from the company- (approximately 0 percent of Avon’s reps accounted for 80 percent of the company’s revenue (1)

Increasing number of women have full time job.

Inefficiencies selling products to modern busy women (most Avon reps are getting their orders every two week from the main distribution center.)

Fewer middle class women are satisfied with part time sales job and, fewer women purchased products sold door-to-door.

Number of competition in the direct selling industry is increasing and competition is intense.

There are a few direct selling firms with diverse products such as Amway, Quixtar, Mary Kay and numerous small companies that sell variety of products.



Please note that this sample paper on avon is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on avon, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on avon will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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