Friday, March 16, 2012

Organic Chemistry

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Organic Chemistry is the study of carbon containing compounds. Which may include numerous important compounds, just to name a few of them, are methane (natural gas), sugar, and aspirin, most biological compounds are organic. Inorganic Compounds deals with compounds found primarily in the nonliving parts of the earth which are for instance; rocks, water and air. I will be distinguishing between organic and inorganic and their characteristics. I will also be including their properties, which represent them.


Organic Chemistry is the study of carbon containing compounds. As said before, but what exactly is an organic compound? Organic compounds always contain carbon, and they are usually combustible. Organic compounds contain atoms of one or more elements. Carbon atoms are unusual because they can form chemical bonds in many different ways, both with other carbon atoms and with other chemical elements. As a result, many kinds of carbon-containing compounds are possible. Scientist has identified several million organic compounds. A large number of simple organic compounds are obtained from plant and animal sources. For example, petroleum and natural contain many hydrocarbons from the remains of organisms that lived million years ago. Ethanol, a kind of alcohol, is formed by the fermentation of fruits, grains, and vegetables. Other organic compounds in living matter include amino acids, sugars, and nucleic acids. Here are some comparisons on organic and inorganic compounds organic compound, always contain carbon, are generally non-electrolytes, are usually combustible and they usually have low melting and boiling points.


Inorganic compounds, rarely contain carbon, they often contain ionic bonds, are noncombustible, and are often electrolytes. Inorganic Chemistry deals with compounds found primarily in the nonliving parts of the Earth rocks, water, and air. Scientists once believed that carbon-containing compounds could be obtained only from living sources. However, in 188, the German chemist Friedrich Wohler prepared the organic compound urea in his laboratory. Since then, scientists have found many ways of making organic compounds from both organic and inorganic materials, and many new important new compounds have been prepared In the laboratory. These compounds include medicines, insecticides, and chains of molecules called polymers. Some examples of an inorganic compound are sodium chloride (table salt), sulfuric acid (battery acid), sodium hydroxide, and water. http//dwb.unl.edu/Chemistry/LearningObjectives/NY0.html


Alkanes are hydrocarbon containing only carbon-carbon single bonds and carbon hydrogen bonds. Alkanes are sometimes called saturated hydrocarbons, because no more hydrogen atoms can be added to them. The roles in modern society are fuels being there largest, gasoline, diesel; heating oil and natural gas are mixtures that contain mostly alkanes. Also they have industrial uses, including use as lubricants, propellants in spray cans and solvents. The structural formula of an Alkane is Methane H4C.


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Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbon containing one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. Alkenes have numerous industrial uses, and the smallest ones are ethene (common name, ethylene) and propene (propylene), are of the most common industrial organic compound. Alkenes are used to make plastic and fibers such as polythylene and polypropylene. Some examples of Alkenes are ethanol (alcohol), ethylene glycol (antifreeze) and acetic acid (vinegar). And the structural formula of an Alkene is Ethene CH4.


Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbon containing one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds. Some quantities are used in industry with the largest single use being that of acetylene (ethyne) in oxyacetylene torches. And the structural form of an Alkyne is Ethyne CH.


Polymerization is a reaction in which small molecules called monomers are joined to form very large molecules called polymers. Saturated organic compounds are and unsaturated compounds differ because Unsaturated hydrocarbon is made of only hydrogen and carbon atoms, but saturated contain only single bonded carbon atoms. http//biology.damien.edu 16080/~kmcdaniel/organic_compounds.htm


Alcohol is an organic compound containing a hydroxyl group attached to a carbon atom of an alkyl group. The structural name and formula of Alcohol is Methanol CHOH.


Phenol is an organic compound containing a hydroxyl group attached to a carbon atom of an aromatic ring. Phenols cannot be dehydrated. The structural name and formula of Phenol is, Phenol Aromatic Ring --- OH.


Ether is an organic compound that contains an oxygen atom single-bonded to carbon atoms. The structural formula of ether is a Benzene ring - Phenyl propyl ether OCH7.


Halides, or organic halogens are the group of compounds that contain a halogen atom (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine) bonded to a carbon atom. All halogen atoms are more electronegative than carbon, so the halides contain polar bonds. The structural formula of a Halide is


http//www.c-f-c.com/supportdocs/halides.htm


Aldehydes are an organic compound containing a carbonyl group that has a hydrogen atom attached to the carbon atom. . Molecules of aldehydes cannot form hydrogen bonds with each other. As a result, they have lower boiling points than alcohols of similar molecular weight. Aldehydes and have higher boiling points than alkanes of similar molecular weight because of the presence of the polar carbonyl group. The polarity of the carbonyl group, and the fact that aldehydes can form hydrogen bonds with water, explains why low molecular weight carbonyl compounds are water-soluble. Formaldehyde is a key industrial chemical in the production of thermosetting plastics. Acetone is an important solvent. Several aldehydes are used as flavorings in a variety of commercial products. The structural formula for an Aldehyde is an Aromatic ring RCOH. http//ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/genobc/Chapter_14/


Ketones are an organic compound containing a carbonyl group with two-carbon atom of the carbonyl group. The structural formula of a Ketone is Aromatic ring RRCO. Organic Acids which is a carbonyl group that has a hydroxyl group attached to it The structural formula of an organic acid is Aromatic ring ---COOH. http//dwb.unl.edu/Chemistry/LearningObjectives/NY0.html


Esters is an organic compound formed from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol or phenol. The structural formula of an ester is Aromatic ring RCO.


Amine is an organic compound containing a nitrogen atom bonded to a carbon atom. The structural formula of an amine is Ring -- NH.


Organic Chemistry contains many compounds as stated above many of them we use in every day bases and some of them we probably would never use.





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