Thursday, March 29, 2012

Moscow

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Moscow is known all ower the world because it is capital of the most powerful states on the Earth. It is the political, economic, scientific and cultural heart of Russia. More than 8000000 people live in Moscow.


The Kremlin of Moscow is the symbol of the Russian politics because all main oficial organisations are situated here. The Mausoleum, the Grand Kremlin palace, the State Kremlin palace and the Presidents residence are on the territory of the Kremlin. The towers of the Kremlin are the simbol of Russia, especially the Spasskaya Tower. The building of the Assembly of Federation is also situated in Moscow.


Moscow was founded centuries ago. In 1156 the fortress was reinforced by prince Yuri Dolgoruky. By and by the settlement became bigger and more powerful. In the 1-th century Moscow became the capital of the Moscow principality as a centre of the struggle of the Russian lands against the Tatar yoke. Next time St.Pitersburg became the capital. But after the October revolution Moscow became the capital again. The battle of Moscow was one of the most important fights of World War II.


Moscow is now one of the most important centres of culture and scince. There are more than 70 educational and research institutes and universities in Moscow, including the greatest Moscow state university named after Lomonosov. Several greatest Russian libraries, including the State library named after Lenin and oth. are in Moscow.


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There are more than 80 museums in this city. For example Oruzheynaya Palata. Its one of the oldest and richest museums.


The Tcar bell and the Tcar cannon are examples of scills of Russian craftsmen.


The State Tretyakov Gallery ia the greatest museum of Russian art, one of the worlds leading museum.


The historical museum is the main museum of the State history.


There are the numerous churches and cathedrals in Moskow.


Moscow is also a city of theatres. There are more than 0 theatres in the Moscow. The most famous theatre is the State Academic Bolshoi theatre.





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Wednesday, March 28, 2012

What are Primary elections and why have they been criticised?

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The first stage of the nomination process is also known as the primary season, after the principal method of choosing between candidates. During the primary season each party will hold a competition in every state to decide which of the selection of candidates they would like to represent their party in the ‘final’, the election. Therefore candidates will criss-cross the country competing for states.


The prize in these contests are delegates to the national party conferences which are held in July/August. Each state has a certain number of delegates dependant on population. If a party is strong in a certain state the party might be given a bonus. The candidate who gets the majority of delegates round the country is adopted as that party’s presidential candidate.


The competitions in a state can take one or two forms, a caucus or a primary. A caucus is where party members vote for delegates who will take their opinions on the choice of candidate to the next level.


Primaries have a different degree of participation to a caucus. Primaries let others vote as well as the party. Closed primaries let voters who have declared themselves loyal to the party to vote, states that have closed primaries include New Hampshire and California. Open primaries allow wider participation again, regardless of party affiliation can participate in the Democratic or Republican but not both. A disadvantage of this is that people can cross party lines to vote the worst candidate. The primary offering the widest participation is the blanket where voters can vote in the Republican and Democratic.


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Primaries also vary in the terms of the allocation of delegates to the candidates . in winner take all primaries the candidate who wins the most votes takes all of the delegates. The alternative, the proportional representative primary allocates delegates in proportion to the number of votes cast in the primary.


Primaries are either advisory or mandatory. Advisory primaries let voters show their preference for a presidential candidate but also vote for delegates to go to the national convention. In a mandatory primary or binding primary voters cast their ballot for the presidential candidate only and delegates selected by their party cast their votes at the national convention accordingly.


Advantages of the primary system are that it attempts to democratise the process by taking power away from party bosses. But the primary system does have its criticisms, parties have no real say as to who gets their nomination, there can be nominees who are at significant odds with traditional democratic policies. Primaries are not really democratic in practice, voter turnout is low, mainly in party stalwarts and there fore not typical of the electorate at large and primaries can bring about bitter conflict between candidates and can damage the standing of each nominee even before fighting the opposition.





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The Rotter's Club by Jonathan Coe

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The Rotter’s Club by Jonathan Coe


1. Time


This novel tells the story of several persons from 17 until 17, and in particular the youth of Benjamin. The story covers a period of about six years, but it takes about 15 hours to read the Rotter’s Club.


One day in the year 00, Sophia tells the story of her uncle Benjamin to Patrick. She goes back to 15 November 17, when her uncle was still an adolescent and there were a lot of IRA-attacks. During this decade there was also growing racial tension and strikes were very common. The entire story is a flashback. In the story itself, they also go back in time.


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For instance at page 4 They first mention that on the morning after the parent-teachers meeting, Chase told Benjamin that his parents were going to dinner at his place. Afterwards they tell what exactly happened on this meeting.


At page 116 we can read the story of Inger, Jorgan’s and Stefan’s mother. She had committed suicide, so now the two boys are living with their grandparents. The grandparents tell Benjamin, Paul and Rolf what happened to their daughter, who was Jewish. They go back to the year 140, when the Germans persecuted these people.


The novel ends in the year 00. In this last part, we get to know Patrick is the son of Claire and Philip, and Sophia is the daughter of Lois and her new friend Christopher.


. Main character Benjamin Trotter


Benjamin Trotter is a well-behaved boy. He has never broken the school rules and he is a diligent student. The very first thing Sophia mentions about her uncle is the fact he is doing his homework. In his last year of secondary education, he achieved the highest possible grades in every subject.


Benjamin cannot exercise authority He has been appointed to be a perfect. This implies he has to maintain order in the school. One of his duties is to supervise the younger forms, while they do litter duty. But he does not succeed in this. One day Philip finds him doing litter duty himself, while all the others have already gone home. Another day Doug finds him with his bottom wedged into one of the litterbins.


As a child, Benjamin was not religious, but this changes after the incident with the swimming trunks. For the rest of his life God plays a quite important role. He believes you can count on him.


I would also describe Benjamin as a sensible boy, and maybe a bit naïf One night he gets drunk, and kisses a girl named Jennifer. Benjamin falls in love with her, and he thinks their love is mutual. He asks her out, but Jennifer’s first reaction is ”Do you think that’s a good idea? Look, all that happened last night is we both got blind drunk and had a bit of a grope.” But Benjamin is still convinced that there is more between them, and he can convince Jennifer to go out with him. They become a couple, but it is quite obvious Jennifer is not really in love with Benjamin and does not care about their relationship. Benjamin’s friends are telling him to break up with her, but he finds it really difficult to break off their relationship, because he is convinced Jennifer is madly in love with him. When he finally dares to say to her their relationship is over, she is not upset at all.


Benjamin is not a great talker, and he prefers to stay in the background. He is also quite introvert, and a little bit antisocial. For example when they are on holiday in Denmark, Paul and Rolf play football with two other boys. But Benjamin does not play along with them. He prefers to write poems, or read novels in preparation of his A-level classes.


Benjamin is, just like all his friends and his little brother, interested in girls. But unlike Paul, who is a real blabbermouth, he is a bit shy. He does not have much self-confidence, certainly not in the presence of women. He is madly in love with Cicely, but he does not dare to approach her. But as he gets older I have the impression he dares more. For instance, when he and his family go on holiday in Wales, Cicely is also staying somewhere in that region with her uncle. Benjamin lies to his parents and says he is going back to Birmingham, but in reality he is going to look for Cicely.


Benjamin is not only interested in girls, but also in everything that is linked with music; he plays the guitar, writes music, and he wants to become a composer or a writer. Benjamin likes music, because it always makes sense, which he could not say about the world. He has problems to understand everything what happens in life. When Benjamin was still thirteen years old, he was an optimistic, and he did not care about what happened in the world. He did not look at the future. I have the impression he changes after the bomb explosion in which his sister gets hurt, and Malcolm gets killed. He starts to think about life, about his own future, about happiness and sadness, and he really starts to treasure the happy moments in life, like the moments he spends together with Cicely.


. Language


-In the novel, plenty of funny situations are described. At page 54 for instance, where the narrator tells us about the ‘goldfish’ incident Lois is talking about a TV programme called ‘Colditz’, while Philip is staring and admiring her breasts. Suddenly he asks to Lois “What is the name of your goldfish?” Phillip was so overwhelmed by her breasts, that he had totally misunderstood the conversation. The narrator ends this incident with the following funny words In a few moments Lois had turned away, with a contemptuous toss of her head, and he was left to contemplate, once again the pallid gorgeousness of her breasts, in the now absolute certainty that this was as close as he would ever get to them.


-Mr Plumb, an art teacher, writes a letter to Philip’s mother, because he is in love with her. He always uses extremely difficult words and he manages to describe things very poetically. For instance I knew I was in the presence of greatness; not merely the presence of a perfect human being (perfect physically and, I venture to imagine, perfect in spirit, flawless in quintessence), but of what might also be described, without too much recourse to fancy, as a perfect work of art…(page 1) His letter was so difficult to understand, that Barbara needed a dictionary to read it.


-Sam is aware of the secret relationship between his wife and Mr Plumb. To impress his wife, he wants to imitate this man. This results in some funny situations, because he is not used to use such difficult words and expressions. For instance The clouds are parting and I can see the light at the end of the tunnel. This is the calm AFTER the storm. He makes himself ridiculous.


-At page 80, irony is used. The Chief Master says to Benjamin that he looks rather pale. Then he goes to Steve Richards, a black boy and says Ah Richards! No one could accuse you of looking pale, eh!


-Sometimes a contradiction also creates funny situations. For example at page 6 At a certain moment Doug says “I just know she’ll hate it.” The next sentence we read is ‘Mmm, lovely’


-Metaphors are used occasionally. For example at page Harding has made his entire face black, except for his nose It looked like a white punctuation mark. At page 171 Strikes are going to destroy this country like cancer destroys the body.


-Sometimes a desperate tone is created, like at page 65. Benjamin has forgotten his swimming trunks. If a boy forgot to bring his swimming trunks, he had to swim in the nude. You can really feel how desperate Benjamin is by the way the narrator describes it He could see it now, picture it, lying redundant against the upholstery in some distant car park, unnoticed by his father; unreachable. The towel, the freshly laundered Rugby shirt, the scuffed plimsolls, and the all-important swimming trunks those few square inches of Terylene which alone had the power to shield him from disaster. All gone. There was nothing that could save him now.


-At page 104 we can read the following fragment Then at 8.0 precisely, the timing device set off the trigger, the battery pack sent power running through the cables, and thirty pound of gelignite exploded on the far side of the pub. And that was how it all ended, for the chick and the hairy guy. Malcolm wanted to propose Lois, but he never got the chance, because there was a bomb explosion. I expected that this part would be full of emotions, but this was not the case; it ends very abruptly. The narrator only describes very short what happened, as if what happened is not important. He creates an impersonal tone. Maybe the narrator wants to show us that luck can turn very quickly in horror.


-At page 1, 5, 8 we find letters that are written by a so-called Athur Pusey�Hamilton, but in fact it is Harding who has written them. Arthur is a man of high standing. He uses difficult words, his writing style is very solemn, and he uses long and difficult sentences structures.


For example There was no time to be lost in extricating him from that sink of iniquity and sure enough, within thirty minutes he was safely at home, had been firmly tucked up in bed by Gladys, my good lady wife, and was enjoying the kind of sleep for which the only prerequisites are youthful innocence, an untroubled conscience and, of course, a powerful dose of barbiturates.


-At page 7 the narrator describes very accurately what is happening. This creates a lot of suspense. Benjamin is lost and he is searching the house were Cicely is staying. The narrator describes the wether there is a thunderstorm, and everything Benjamin sees and smells there is a gate, which shrieks when you open it, he can taste his own warm blood, the man that answers the door is one of the most frightening faces he has ever seen, …


-At page 6 we can read some fragments from Lois’ diary. As you read them, you notice, she really tries to think optimistically. She wants to control her emotions. For example Bad Lois, naughty Lois! No no no!; Come on Lois, you can do it! You’ve been through the worse!


-In the novel we can also read some articles that appear in the Bill Board. This school newspaper is written, among others, by Benjamin and Doug. The language they use in the article is totally different from the way they speak. In the articles they use very difficult words. For instance Richards missed none of the tonal ambiguity of this passage his delivery was courteous, but he caught the undertow of boastfulness, of thinly veiled scorn for the men of peace, which lies beneath the honeyed words. They try to make their articles exciting and pleasant to read, just like a real journalist. For example at page 10 When he begins to speak, the voice, initially, is a disappointment. He falters, stiffens, seems to mishear the rhythms. He is in fear of the verse, not in command of it. You notice Benjamin wants to built up the suspense.


-There is a sentence that begins at page 6 and only ends at page . In this part Benjamin tells about the morning he was alone with Cicely and they made love. He says there are moments in life, which are so full of emotion that they become somehow timeless. He will never forget this moment. I think this is the reason why they have not used a full stop.


-In this part the image of the yellow balloon comes back. In the beginning of the novel Benjamin mentions this balloon was his earliest memory. Accidentally, he had let go the balloon, and it flew away. Now he has the feeling he has found his yellow balloon back.


-At page 8 and we have a very accurate description of the environment. Benjamin wakes up and he has the feeling he is dead and has gone to heaven. In this part the narrator uses many words that refer to this place birdsongs, sun was streaming into the windows in shafts of white gold, in the background waves broke softly the distant shore, Cicely sat on his bed, and wore a white dress, and her hair was long and golden, …


-When the narrator uses foreign words (for instance persona non grata) he writes them in italics. He also does this when he wants to stress a word. (That’s not still going on, is it?) Fragments coming from a diary and also letters are sometimes written in italics.





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Tuesday, March 27, 2012

Educational Philosophy

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As a new graduate student with no teaching experience, I have only my personal experience and observations from which to create an educational philosophy. I believe that each child has a different style of learning and that my job as an educator is to meet the needs of all my students. I believe that each student goes through the same basic ordering from concrete to semi concrete to abstract in conceptualizing ideas; my job is to present lessons in a relevant manner so that the material is presented in an appropriate manner for each student. I recognize that there is no one way to learn nor is there only one way to teach, rather there are a range of effective teaching methods to be employed to ensure that all children acquire mastery of the subject matter.


Since knowledge is the sum of all experiences, each bit of material presented in school, at home, and in social settings adds to ones knowledge base. To cease to learn is to cease to live.


From my personal experience with my children attending school in the local school district, I feel that the method of teaching in the local school district is a disservice to my children because the emphasis is on regurgitation of memorized facts rather than higher-order thinking. In other words, they are being taught what to think, not how to think. I prefer to teach students how to think.


As an educator, my duties include providing an environment rich with opportunities to learn while embracing cultural diversity and recognizing individual worth. I recognize that I will not enter my first teaching experience with all the answers, so I will work on looking at problems from multiple perspectives; I will carefully consider consequences of actions; and I will wholeheartedly embrace changes which improve the learning outcome.


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I have seen 5 years of change in education both directly as a student and indirectly as the child of an educator (English teacher). I understand that there are certain requirements for record keeping which must be accomplished, though I wish to maximize educational time within the classroom and outside the class as I interact with the students.


I wish to impart my love for Mathematics to the next generation so that perhaps some of the students I teach will choose to enter the teaching profession and continue the cycle of learning with the following generation of students.





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The Failure of American Public Schools: A Quantitative Approach

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Introduction and Purpose Statement


Is the quality of teachers holding firm in the twenty-first century? For decades now the public school system is failing our children and I wonder who is at fault? The United States is falling behind in the international education market. The level of education received is lagging behind in all grades (K-1). The academic standards that the United States prides on is horrible and a solution can be maintained through reform. With the growing diversity in America, teachers need to become more qualified to teach in public schools. In order to educate all students, teachers need new skills. There is a crisis in education and the answer can be found in the reform of teacher education.


In the past, education has been a focal point for many researchers, but in recent years the focus has turned to the teachers and their contribution to the classroom. Martin Gross believes that education is gunscholarly, anti-intellectual, anti-academic cabal that can best be described as a conspiracy of ignorance, one with false theories and low academic standardsh (Gross-1). Many things need to be changed in the education establishment, but the purpose of this study is to study alternative certification throughout the United States and see if an increase in educational standards is possible.


According to the National Center for Education Information (NCEI), 45 out of the 50 states have chosen an alternative route to certification besides sending teachers back to school to major in education. The problem with majoring in education is that too many teachers donft have a passion to teach a specific field. They majored in education because it was quick, but they truly do not have knowledge in a specific area. Alternative certification allows people with various types of educational backgrounds to become teachers. By allowing a different route to certification it will help lower teacher shortage and make smaller classroom sizes.


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The NCEI has researched and surveyed every year since 18 the revolutions that take place in education. Their recent survey looks at alternative certification on a state-by-state analysis, but what remains to be explored is the impact on education itself. For years now the United States has been lagging behind on the quality of education. Very few studies have focused on how alternative certification of teachers increase the quality of education students receive within the classroom. If more teachers were qualified in a specific field (i.e. science, mathematics, English, etc.) instead of majoring in education where educational psychology and a little bit of everything else is learned, the quality of education in the United States would increase.


If every state Board of Education could recognize a significant change in the quality of learning then alternative certification would prove to be a success and hopefully replace traditional education programs in undergraduate colleges. My objective in this research is to use a quantitative means of analysis to prove that alternative certification can raise the quality of American public schools. I hope to discover that since alternative certification has become well known the extent of education has developed into something stronger then in the past. Through this exploration into education, I will examine individual experiences from traditional teachers, non-traditional teachers, and students in California. The purpose of this ethnography study is to understand alternative certification for all people in the education field throughout the United States. At this stage in the research, the certification will be generally defined as the quality and competence of teachers in the field of education.


Research Paradigm and Research Design


After reading Hoover and Creswell, I think the best paradigm for this design and myself is post-positivism. Creswell states that all researchers should start with an assumed knowledge claim and through deductive reasoning positivism fits my design. I chose post-positivism because as Creswell states, gdetermination, reductionism, empirical observation and measurement and theory verificationh are the ways in which this design is set up for (Creswell 6). Post-positivists believe there is a single knowable reality and their claims warrant knowledge. The best analysis of post-positivism is when you believe there is a single knowable reality; the easiest way to examine it is through the scientific method and empirical science.


Creswell states, gpost-positivism reflects a deterministic philosophy in which causes probably determine effects or outcomesh (7). In my design, the causes that will be examined are alternative and traditionally certified teachers and my outcome that is affected by the cause is student achievement. Through observation and measurement, I hope to find a positive relation between the two. The scientific method is a very simply process to follow


1) The identification of the variables to be studied


) A hypothesis about the relation of one variable to another or to a situation


) A reality test whereby changes in the variables are measured to see if the hypothesized relationship is evidenced


4) An evaluation in which the measured relationship between the variables is compared with the original hypothesis, and generalizations about the findings are developed


5) Suggestions about the theoretical significance of the findings factors involved in the test that may have distorted the results, and other hypotheses that the inquiry brings to mind (Hoover 1).


The post-positivist approach allows me to start with the theory that alternative certification will enhance the quality of education in public schools and then collect data from both the students and the teachers based on backgrounds that will eventually either support or disagree with my original theory. The truth will never be found because research on human behavior is always fallible. I am hoping that my design will not reject my theory, but encourage it to be studied more. In my research, I cannot assume everything will have a positive outcome; I can simply test my theory with hopes of maintaining my original hypothesis.


My data on the studentfs background will be based on their location of school, classroom size, race, sex, and testing scores. The teachers (both TC and ATC) will have a simply analogy on their backgrounds of how they became teachers. In a study such as this, subject matter competency means a lot. My research should eventually shape my knowledge into a theory that maintains original thoughts.


As my research design concludes, I should be able to develop truth statements on how alternative certification can better the education students receive in American public schools. Not all of my data I collect will have a major impact on my theory and therefore, I will have to refute some of my findings. The relationship between variables and outcomes will have an impact on my hypothesis. I started this design with full intention of finding the gtruthh, but what post-positivism has taught me is that I need to be objective and find the truths that can hold firm in the end.





The basic research design that I will use looks like this


Independent Variables Variables Dependent Variables


Traditional Certification Classroom Size


Demographics Quality of


Race Education ACT/SAT


Sex


Test Scores


Alternative Certification


Literature Review


Alternative certification opens a broad range when it comes to the written literature. Do you focus on the teacher and credentials or the needs of the students in the 1st century? As my research expands, the definition of alternative certification enlarges; I will base my outline material to fit a quantitative analysis. In this research design, there are only two main concepts we need to understand, alternative and traditionally certified teachers. Although these phrases can be ambiguous when in context of most literature, I intend on using theory to portray these meanings.


Characteristics of traditionally certified and alternatively certified teachers can be studied through case studies on a state-by-state analysis (Feistritzer). Through surveys, public school teachers support alternative certification, but are questionable on the policies behind them. Every state has their own motivation for allowing alternatively certified teachers into their school districts. At this time, the research base comparing the quality of alternatively qualified and traditionally certified teachers is small, but the differences that have been made through case studies seem to have some positive differences.


One way to study the quality of alternatively certified teachers is to look at teacher shortages, classroom sizes, statewide exams, and competency levels in public school areas. On the other hand, studies have shown that four myths exist within alternative teacher preparation. They are supposed to emphasize content knowledge, attract better candidates, produce more effective teachers, and have no effect on teacher retention (Barnett). To start my research design, I find it important to examine all material that are based on the quality and competence of alternatively certified teachers because it will lead to better theory for comparison.


Quantitative Topic Outline


Key Relationships


Traditional vs. Alternatively Certified Teachers (Chappelle)


Competency in subject matter (Rogers)


Developmental skills of students


Standardize test results (Jianping)


In order to look at the dynamics of teachers, I will use California as a backbone to the research. I will attempt to view all public schools that use both alternative and traditionally certified teachers. I will group them based on location (i.e. large urban areas, etc.) which will allow multi-cases to form on the same subject. As other scholars have in different states, such as Texas and Wisconsin, I chose California for its large impact on alternative certification. By using Feistritzer examples of how to conduct a case studies within a state, I will observe the dynamics and results of both set groups and then question if previous researchers are accurate in saying that alternatively certified teachers do not make a difference and it is just an easy way for the state to fill their education requirements.


I believe there is a positive relationship/outcome for American public schools through alternative certification (Holmes). After gathering/observing these schools, I hope to come to the conclusion that the positive relationship is accurate. Once I have the data from the variables that I collected from these multi-cases, I hope that the generated theory/hypothesis will be proven through these key relationships


Key Relationships for Variables


Direct and Indirect differences


Variables, such as gender bias


Male to female ratio


Licensing Requirements (Cornett)


Program Entry Requirements (Shaughnessy)


Preparation of both teachers (McKibbin, Newman)


Point of Entry into Classroom


Support from the Districts for Professional Development (Ruckel)


Motives (Carnegie Forum, NCEI)


California is a unique state in that it has been struggling with finding ways to bring qualified individuals into teaching to meet its rapid and huge demand for teachers. Like other states across the US, California has sought to cope with the overall growth among the school-age population, as well as continuing, rapid expansion of minority student populations (Ruenzel). California has 5 alternative routes, involving 75 school districts, which, together, educate more than 70 percent of the statefs school children. California has hired over 10,000 teachers through alternative routes (NCEI).


Alternative teacher certification is an idea whose time has finally come. I believe there is a distinct relationship between the quality of education and teachers. American public schools need teachers that are more adequate in specific subject matters and more equip to handle the changing times of the 1st century. Every state in the nation is carefully looking into alternative certification; regardless of their initial reasoning it will benefit our children.


The literature I have picked shows alternative certification in two different lights. Many feel that they are not ready or trained to be in a classroom and others feel that it will only grow as both the student and teacher grow with in the classroom. There are a lot of different qualities that fit individuals who want to become certified. Some of these qualities are that they have degrees with majors other than education, they are more likely to have work experience in occupations other than education, they tend to be older, they are more likely to be men or a minority, they teach where job demand is the greatest (large urban areas), and they have higher retention rates.


The connection between the data that is collected from the control variables affecting the dependent variable will have a positive relationship to the theory that alternatively certified teachers can increase the quality of education students receive and pull the US back onto the education highway. The most important studies show that there is a positive relationship to solving the problem in education; I hope that my research design follows what they say and enhances the study of education to a new level.


Theory


After reading Martin Grossfs Conspiracy of Ignorance, I realized that he was right about education in so many ways that it stunned me to think that simple changes in the foundation of education could improve the standards of education in the US. Gross always encouraged reform and not replacement and that is the focus of my research design. I never thought that traditionally certified teachers are bad, I just think there can be better. The fact of the matter is majoring in education requires little academic knowledge and the majority of traditionally certified teachers majored in education with a concentration in something else. Neisler states perfectly what Grossfs intentions were and what my research design was meant to accomplish, gA new mission for public education has been defined during the last part of the 0th century. Spurred by the erosion of the United Statesf ability to compete in international markets, task force after task force outlines new educational goals designed to create the highly skilled labor force necessary for the 1st centuryh (Neisler).


To educate all students, teachers need new skills. A diverse era is in the progress and our public schools are failing our children. There are a number of opposing hypotheses to alternative certification, and as Gross puts it, the gcurrent chaotic crisish is not going to end until reform is met. Some of the opposing hypotheses feel that there is not a difference in the quality a teacher can produce, it depends strictly on the student (Shoho). I disagree with this notion because, a student can only learn if the person standing in front of them can make a difference.


Some of the major concepts that relate to my theory are what I am using as my variables. Demographics, classroom size, shortages, sex, race, standardized test scores, and ACT score results all play a role in how my theory fits into what Gross and Neisler have being saying about public schools. Theory plays an important role in my research project because I am starting with a huge assumption and trying to find data that will back up my theory. My theory is not complex, it is not trying to change the world, and it simply looks at an institution already established and tries to find a ways to reform it.


Theory is what this quantitative research design is about. The independent, dependent, and control variables have been established and from here comes the theory that alternative certification can change the outcome of student achievement. I will examine that regardless of race or sex, alternative certification should have a positive enhancement for public schools in California.


Hypothesis


This study is an attempt to elaborate on and clarify the link between alternative certification and the quality of education in American public schools. I used two different types of schools. One who only allows traditionally certified teachers and one whom allows alternatively certified teachers to perform. The teachers are only one variable in this project and the other is the result they leave on there students.


The purpose of this experiment will be to test the theory of alternative certification that relates the quality of education to alternative certification of teachers, controlling for gender, male to female ratio, test scores, backgrounds, and subject-matter competence for all students at public schools throughout California. The independent variable is alternative certification and will be generally defined as a different way to obtain certification in a field where competence should take priority. The dependent variable will generally be defined as the quality of learning in which students reflect on test scores and achievement, and the control and intervening variables, such as gender and subject matter competence, will be statistically controlled in the study.


Theory and Method


After weeks of consideration, the subjects in this project are students, traditionally certified teachers, and alternatively certified teachers. The subjects are drawn from a statewide analysis with no random sampling available, but pairing up of schools into multi-cases. The state in which I will be examining is California. In these multi-cases, I will group socio-economic area schools and urban area schools together with the intent that it might make a difference. The hypothesis that leads me to these subjects is the impact of teacher education on learning outcomes.


The reality test between the variables is very simplistic in this study. The independent variables are traditional certification and alternative certification (subject matter competence). Both of these independent variables affect the outcomes that are being studied. These variables will be measured based on backgrounds and accomplishments. For the traditionally certified teacher, a simply acknowledgement of their background in college (i.e. major in education) and lifetime experiences will define that they were taught in the traditional certification manner. They will either be categorized as weak or strong. On the other hand, alternatively certified teachers can have three different backgrounds. They could have a major in a specific field, hold a minor in a specific field, or have gathered practical experience in their lifetime. Each of these backgrounds holds a level of subject matter competency and therefore, should prove my hypothesis that alternative certified teachers can improve the level of education. The basic design that shows the relevance between the independent and dependent variable is as follows


Traditionally Certified +++


Student Achievement


Alternative Certified +


(Subject Matter)


There is a direct relation between how teachers learn to be teachers and how it eventually affects the studentfs achievement with in the classroom. Therefore, the dependent variable is the studentfs achievement. To operationalize the dependent variable, I will look at achievement over a long period of time. Test scores within a classroom over a period of a year should help determine if achievement has been reached. The result of the independent variable is always going to be the dependent variable and in this case there are a number of controlled variables that help determine the relationship between the two. In order to get the different types of control variables, I examined the students throughout the state to gain a better perception of which variables posses a positive or negative relationship between the two main variables. The survey then enhanced the relationship between class size, race, sex, demographics, ACT/SAT scores, and standardized tests. With the addition of controlled variables, it becomes easier to find a positive relationship between the independent and the dependent variable. The chart for the control variables is as follows


Class Size


+++


Race ›


›


Sex Student Achievement


++


Demographics


+++


ACT/SAT


+++





Standardized tests





With control variables in effect, the outcomes that are maintained in the classroom have a lot to do with the location, size of the classes, and test scores. These results would come from descriptive and inferential questions brought to the students for observation. The connection between the independent and the dependent variable would hopefully prove the hypothesis accurate in that it expresses a positive relationship. The control variables make an extreme difference because in American public schools times are changing and teachers need to be more informed with different cultures and backgrounds. With a positive relationship between test scores and class room sizes to student achievement, it would prove that subject matter competency in alternative certification would not only help the teacher shortages throughout California, especially in large urban areas, but also increase the quality of education each student receives. The overall theories that comes out of this research design is the following


1) The more subject matter competency a teacher posses, the greater chance of student improvement


) The more alternative certified teachers there are, the greater chance of having smaller classrooms.


) The more life experience a teacher possesses, the higher chance of them relating to their students in large urban areas.


4) The higher level of education and life experience a teacher acquires, the greater chance for their students to perform successfully higher on standardized tests.


If this research design holds true after the reality test and operationalization of the information, the final theory and design is as follows


Traditionally Certified


Alternatively Certified +++ +


Test Scores (CV) ›


Student Achievement


Classroom Size (CV) ›


›


Demographics (CV)


In conclusion to this design, alternatively certified teachers can help increase the quality students receive within the classroom. By no means am I saying that traditionally certified teachers are of poor quality, I just feel that a gchangeh can produce a higher quality of education in the 1st century. The variables show an improvement, some which could prove accurate for traditionally certified teachers, but not in the level of quality in which this design was determined to find.


Evaluation


According to Creswell, gthere are several threats to validity that will raise potential issues about an experimenterfs ability to conclude that the intervention affects an outcomeh (Creswell 171). One of the most important validity threats to my research design are that I chose to examine just California, instead of all fifty states. This could lead to discrepancies within the information about demographics, class size, and test scores. Every state is composed of a different group of individuals, I chose California because I think it best represents all levels of income and classes.


Another internal threat is that, I put more emphasis on alternatively certified teachers than to traditionally certified teachers. My theory was how they can help reform education, not how traditional teachers maintain education. Another internal validity issue is how real are the studentfs answers about test scores and demographics. Looking at the age group of 11-17, many students could have became embarrassed and lied to hopefully fit within the standards that never existed.


The biggest external threat to validity is that I will draw a conclusion to fit my theory, instead of accepting all of the data and refuting my first theory and accepting that. I hold a major bias to my theory because I am sick of watching students fail in areas where students do not have a choice who teaches it. I have been a mentor for five years and I have watched students fail because they do not learn from their math teacher who graduated from college with a degree in education and a minor in English. I hope alternative certification becomes more and more popular, so that the quality of education improves.


Bibliography


gAlternative Teacher Certification.h National Center for Education Information. 00.


http//www.ncei.com


Bales, Barbara. g Strange Bedfellows? Title 1 Funding, Alternative Teacher Certification Programs, and State Teacher Standards.h February 00.


Barnett, Berry. gNo Shortcuts to Preparing Good Teachers.h Educational Leadership May 001 v58 n8 p.


Bradshaw, Lynn. gPolicy, Politics, and Contradictions of Alternative Teacher Certification.h April 18.


Carnegie Forum. A Nation Prepared Teachers for the 1st Century. New York Carnegie Forum on Education, 186.


Chandler, B.J. et al. Education and the New Teacher. New York Dodd, Mead, and Company, 171.


Chappelle, Nesa and Segun Eubanks. g Defining Alternative Certification and Non-traditional Routes to Teaching Similarities, Differences, and Standards of Quality.h Teaching & Change Sum 001 v8 n4 p07.


Chernoff, Michael et al. The Validity Issue What Should Teacher Certification Measure? New Jersey Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 187.


Cornett, Lynn. gGetting Beyond Talk State Leadership Needed to Improve Teacher Quality.h Educational Benchmarks December 1.


Coyle-Rogers, Patricia and George Rogers. gDifferences in Adaptive Competency Acquisition between Traditionally Certified and Alternatively Certified Technology Education Teachers.h December 001.


Ducharme, Edward and Mary Ducharme. gQuantity and Quality not enough to go around.h Journal of Teacher Education May-June 18 v4 n p16.


Ethridge, Elizabeth. gAlternative Certification A Threat to Quality.h Childhood Education Winter 000 v77 i p4.


Feistritzer, C. Emily. Alternative Teacher Certification A State-by-State Analysis 10. Washington D.C. National Center for Education Information, 10.


Fessler, Ralph and Judith Christensen. The Teacher Career Cycle Understanding and Guiding the Professional Development of Teachers. Boston Allyn and Bacon, 1.


Gross, Martin. The Conspiracy of Ignorance The Failure of American Public Schools.


New York Harper Collins, 1.


Holmes, Barbara. gUnderstanding the Pros and Cons of Alternative Routes to Teachers Certification.h Teaching & Change Sum 001 v8 n4 p17.


Lederman, Norman and Lawrence Flick. gThe Ulterior Motives of Alternative Certification.h School Science and Mathematics Dec 001 v101 i8 p401.


McKibbin, Michael. gOne Size Does Not Fit All Reflections on Alternative Routes to Teacher Preparation in California.h Teacher Education Quarterly Win 001 v8 n1 p1.


Miller, John et al. gA Comparison of Alternatively and Traditionally Prepared Teachers.h Journal of Teacher Education May 18 v4 n p165.


Newman, Carol and Kay Thomas. gAlternative Teacher Certification.h 1


Ogden, William. gComparison of Texas Teacher Appraisal System Evaluations of Traditional and post-Baccalaureate teacher Candidates.h Education Spring 14 v114 n p470.


Otuya, Ebo. gAlternative Teacher Certification An Update.h ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education November 1.


gQuality Teachers for the 1st Century.h Education Commission of the States. 1 ed.


Ruckel, Carol. gEnsuring Quality Teachers through Alternative Certification Programs.h October 000.


Ruenzel, David. gTortuous Routes in California, alternative certification has become a crucial source of new teachers. It would be even more crucial if its cumbersome requirements didnft dissuade so many promising candidates.h Education Next Spring 00 v i1 p4.


Shaughnessy, Michael and Billy Gaedke. gEarned and Unearned Degrees, Earned and


Unearned Teaching Certificates Implications for Education.h 000.


Shen, Jianping. g Has the Alternative Certification Policy Materialized Its Promise? A Comparison Between Traditionally and Alternatively Certified Teachers in Public Schools.h Education Evaluation & Policy Analysis Fall 17 v1 n p 76.


Shoho, Alan and Nancy Martin. gAlienation among Alternatively Certified and Traditionally Certified Teachers.h ERS Spectrum 1 v17 n p7.


Please note that this sample paper on The Failure of American Public Schools: A Quantitative Approach is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on The Failure of American Public Schools: A Quantitative Approach, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on The Failure of American Public Schools: A Quantitative Approach will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Monday, March 26, 2012

eros:agape:philia

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Eros, Agape, and Philia Love


Philia is a type of unconditional, brotherly love. The related Greek word “koinonia” is very close to philia, which means fellowship. This type of love is usually common in family and friendship relationships. The type of love that is present in a family has a lot to do with loyalty. “My Papa’s Waltz”, written by Theodore Roethke in 148, is a poem that illustrates philia genuinely. In this poem, the speaker discusses how a certain type of behavior by a fatherly figure hurts a person. It seems as if the father is abusing a small child, yet, the child remains loyal to the father and unconditional love is present. In many families, parents and siblings may be mean, crude, or just down right boastful and hurt one another. In most cases, a family virtue is forgiveness, which in turn will save a family from breaking away from each other, which in turn will save them from much heartache.


I believe that the title “My Papa’s Waltz” is a perfect title for the type of situation. A waltz is a simple routine, which includes a certain number of steps and a certain number of ways to perform the dance. The same thing happens in the poem. For example, the speaker may be trying to give the perception that this behavior portrayed by the father is simply a routine. Also, dancing involves motion. The speaker touches base upon the fact that they are constantly romping past the different rooms in the house. The speaker


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states “ You beat time on my head with a palm caked hand by dirt, then waltzed me off to bed, still clinging to your shirt”. The fact that the speaker claims to be clinging to the shirt proves that there is an unconditional type of love that is present. The speaker describes the abusive situation that he is put in. Yet, in the end he still seeks his father’s affection and love. This proves that the horrible abuse will not defeat unconditional love. The speaker sees something underneath his father and feels that in the depth of his soul, there may be an impeccable ounce of love waiting to be discovered.


Another type of love that is common is agape. Agape can be defined as a God-given motivation that seeks the best for the beloved on the highest moral plane. In a nutshell, it is a loyal covenant- keeping love. I am very biased when it comes to Agape love. I was raised in a religious household and have attended private schools for a great portion of my life. I feel that not all people can see the real beauty of an “agape” lifestyle. In present day and age, it takes someone to get cancer, or have a near death experience to truly appreciate what they have.


“Glory be to God for all dappled things.” This is the first line from the poem “Pied Beauty”. Right away, the audience can see that agape love is present. This poem, written in 1877, was very straight forward and basically put everything out on the table. The speaker’s tone seems to be very gracious and filled with a deep sense of gratitude. The speaker sees the beauty in everyday things, such as “skies of couple- colour as a brinded cow” and for “rose-moles all in a stipple upon the trout that swim”. It seems extremely odd hearing the speaker say this. I use to work on a farm giving children tours


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of animals, and the only people who ever actually saw the beauty in a cow’s color were the children. I find it odd because children are so innocent. The simplest thing will please a child, and they will find beauty and love. Yet, with adults, the hustle of everyday life surpasses the actual meaning of life.


The last line of the poem is “He father’s forth whose beauty is past change Praise him”. I feel that the speaker knows that there have been many man-made additions to our world. The speaker could quite possibly also feel that human beings try to play God. In addition, we humans praise these people who pose as “Our Creator”, instead of actually giving credit to God. The speaker’s tone in the last line comes off as stern, as opposed to his sincere tone in the previous stanzas. The main point, that is clearly being projected by the speaker, is to realize that God has created such a divine place here on earth filled with beauty and love, and to just acknowledge what humans were given and be grateful.


Eros is the last type of love that will be presented in this paper. This is the first type of love that generally pops into a person head once the “L- word” is used. Eros is a sexual, romantic, and self-directed love. Perhaps it is because Eros was a Greek god with a bad reputation. This type of love is the kind that is shown through marriage. It comes with a great deal of passion, romance, and sex. Eros is a part of society’s everyday life. This is the most accepting type of love. We see it in the movies, on television, on the Internet, or we hear about it on the radio. It is more acceptable to see an unmarried couple in bed, than going to church on a television program.


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The last poem I will be reflecting upon is “To His Coy Mistress”, written by Andrew Marvell in 1681. The reason I chose this specific poem to represent eros is because it has a contrast between love and hate. The speaker is a man who is trying to seduce a young lady into sleeping with him. The speaker’s tone is very melodious and he appears to be in love. He is describing every single part of her body and soul. He uses very colorful language. For example, the speaker says, “An hundred years should go to praise thine eyes, on thy forehead gaze. Two hundred to adore each breast, but thirty thousand for the rest”. The speaker is complimenting this girl and doing whatever it takes to make her feel superb among other women. The fact that he claims to adore every inch of her body leads me to believe that he is idolizing her. Many females are enchanted receiving compliments. Towards the end of the poem, he starts to pressure the female into sleeping with him. From the compliments, he slowly starts informing her that beauty only lasts so long. He states, “ Thus, though we cannot make our sun, stand still, and yet we will make him run”. The speaker is trying to persuade the idea that death is oh but so near. He is tempting her into thinking that there is only so much time for everything and it will soon come to an end. I believe the speaker uses the years that he will take to adore her as a foreshadowing of what is coming up next in his devious thoughts. He persuaded a female to think that all his life, and basically into eternity, he would adore her every inch. Yet, it is merely impossible, therefore, he has to skip the adoration and cut straight to the chase, which is simply sex.


Love is the most complicated subject, which most major arts are eager to deal with. This subject is sometimes easy to define, but sometimes difficult. A common person or philosopher may have their own opinions about love differently, but each of them is equally valuable. That is why we ultimately have different types of love, which include eros, agape, and philia.





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The Neolithic Revolution

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The Neolithic Revolution led to civilization in many ways. Advances made during this time period led to several things. Despite the fact that it took place at different times and parts of the world, things like agriculture, technology, and villages made all the changes happen.


Agriculture is thought to be dated as far back as 8000 B.C. in the Middle East, and 5000 B.C. and 4000 B.C. in China and the Americas. Farming made life a lot easier. Although they had to work harder and longer for their food, rather than hunting and gathering, the results seemed fair. For instance, they could stay in one place for longer periods of time, and it brought a larger, more steady and reliable food supply. Also they had the help of domesticating animals. Animals provided many things like; meat, fur, bones for tools, labor, and if they produced any goods. There were many inventions in this time period that helped out a lot also.


The nomadic habit soon ended and villages started up when people produced food and could live longer, and they also started settling in communities. Also technological advances assisted in the Revolution. Inventions were swarming. There was the plow pulled by trained oxen, fertilization, the loom, wheel, bricks, and hammers. Copper, lead, and gold were made into weapons and jewelry. Later on calendars were made to keep track of seasons and determine when to plant crops. Also boundary lines and rules of inheritance were created. Warfare was started in fights for land or water. Deities became popular.


All of these things became popular, and each assisted in the part-taking of the Neolithic Revolution leading to civilization. Because of all of the mentioned things, civilization came to be and nomadic behavior ceased.


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Psych

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The Effects of Social Pressure


On


Conformity


Cheap University Papers on Psych

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BACKGROUND


Social compliance (Asch 151, 15) is defined as the act of giving in to demands or requests, under the influence of a group of peers or authority figures. Social compliance is a large part of psychology and how ones beliefs and views are formed. Those who have low self-esteem are easily swayed to agree with what those who are around them say and sometimes do. Another form of social compliance is conformity. Conformity is the changing of your ideas in order to fit the ideas of those around you. In the study of conformity and social compliance, two psychologists lead the way in this field Solomon Asch and Stanley Milgram. Both psychologists were instrumental in the findings of how people react to differing interactions with peers and authority figures. Asch ran a study on how people reacted when in a group of confederates (actors to help Asch with the experiment) gave a blatantly wrong answer to an easy set of questions concerning a set of lines and there perceived size. Milgram’s experiment was a few years later and involved a person’s ability to give a shock to someone whom they did not know. The shock’s increased each time in strength. The only thing that kept the person giving the shock to continue giving them was a man who was dressed in a lab coat and appeared to be a scientist. Both of these studies were considered breakthrough experiments that showed many Americans the danger’s of social pressure.


The first psychologist to go into an in depth look at social compliance was Solomon Asch. Asch was born Warsaw in 107 and immigrated to the United States in 10. He took a job at Swathmore College a seat on the psychology board. There he became famous for his experiment on conformity. Asch was interested in the effect of how people changed their views to conform to the “in group.” Asch set up an experiment to determine whether one’s decisions are the same in a non-pressure situation, as in a social situation in which others disagreed with that person’s opinion. In order to set up the experiment Asch set up an experiment, where he told the study that he/she would be sit in with six others (confederates) to determine perception. Obviously, had the study known the experiment was on conformity then they would not have complied with the group norm. Then Asch sat all seven in a room with a table with seven chairs the only true person being studied would be placed second to last to ensure that they heard the others responses to the test before saying their own choice. Then a series of lines were presented. One line was the base line to which the other lines were to be matched up with. The group was given a set of three other lines to compare to the first. Of the three lines, one was obviously the correct answer while the other two were clearly wrong. The confederates at the beginning of the table then gave the answer they were told to give. Asch purposely told them to give them the wrong answer to see if the study would conform to the wrong answer. Surprisingly enough, thirty-five percent of the time the study gave in to the groups wrong answer. This can correlate to the fact that over a third of the time we give in to our friends plans that conflict with our own. This discovery by Asch created an uproar from scientists to rush out and duplicate his work.


One psychologist who became very intrigued by this discovery was Stanley Milgram. Stanley Milgram was born New York in 1 and worked in that area until, 15 when he joined Asch in Princeton to study conformity. This was just after Asch had come out with his social compliance theory. Milgram wanted to do something much like Asch’s experiment but had one other idea in mind. Milgram had been fascinated by the Eichmann Trial. Eichmann a German officer during World War II, was on trial for the murder of the millions of Jews he had killed in his prison during the Holocaust. In his defense, Eichmann claimed that he was just taking orders from his superiors. Milgram wanted to see if what Eichmann had said would hold true in a much less dangerous situation. Milgram set up an infamous experiment called “Obedience to Authority” (Milgram 174). In this experiment Milgram asked the individuals who volunteered, to be a teacher for another’s experiment. This other person was actually an actor who was in cahoots with Milgram. The “teacher” was the only actual study. Milgram then had the study place the “student” in the first room while the study then went to the next room. The study had no actually visual look at the student but could hear him over a microphone. The only other person was a man dressed in a lab coat who served as the authority figure to the teacher. The teacher was then informed to give the student a series of questions. Each time the student gave the wrong answer, the teacher was to give him a shock. The volts started at fifteen and increased by fifteen each time after the first. After each shock the student, who was not actually receiving the shock at all, gave a predetermined response such as oww, stop that or that hurts. After the shock reached a certain high level of volts around 50 the student would begin to scream with pain. The teacher would then hesitate to give the next shock. He would look back at the authority figure, which might have just nodded, or said “You said you would help with the experiment”. Even though the scientist said no more then that the teacher would continue, despite hearing the scream of the “student”. In the end, sixty-five percent of the studies shocked the students to the highest level (450 volts), which was well past the level needed to kill a person.


Conformity is one of the leading studies of social psychology today. Asch and Milgram were the two pioneers of this field of study and both are credited with sociopsychology awards as well as respect in the psychology field as a whole. Asch began research through his “Social Compliance Theory” and Milgram furthered that by his “Obedience to Authority” idea. Although unethical today, Milgram’s experiment showed how those in power extremely influence our reactions. This was also proven in the Mi Lai incident. American soldiers loosed fire on a village of women and children. Afterwards, they claimed they were following orders. In order to really understand conformity one must completely understand that anyone, can be easily influenced by a group of peers or an authority figure. This is will always be an issue for psychologists, as long as there people’s esteems and standards are changing.








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An investigation to determine the effect of detergent on cell membranes

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To investigate the effect of detergent on Cell Membranes


Cell membranes are composed mainly of phospholipids. A cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer, which acts as an effective barrier, controlling what substances enter and exit the cell. This property can be explained by the structure of phospholipids.


Phospholipids are composed of a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail. When in water, all of the hydrophilic heads face outwards into the water and the hydrophobic tails face each other, shielded on either side by hydrophilic heads


As the hydrophobic tails create a non-polar interior, it is difficult for polar molecules, or ions, to pass through them and so acts as a barrier to most water-soluble substances. The phospholipid bilayer also prevents the contents of the cell from escaping.


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If detergent is introduced to the phospholipid bilayer it gradually breaks down, allowing the interior contents to vacate the cell, which will inevitably lead to the demise of the cell. Detergents attack lipids (for example in washing powders), which are an integral part of phospholipids, and make them increasingly soluble, thus destroying the cell membrane.


Hypothesis


Because of the effect of detergent on cell membranes, it is feasible to assume that the greater the amount of detergent added to the cell membrane, the greater the amount of phospholipids that will be dissolved, and therefore the greater the leakage of cell content


Strategy


In a previous experiment concerning the effect of heat on channel proteins in cell membranes, beetroot discs were used. Three beetroot discs were placed in each test tube and were then subjected to various temperatures. These proved to work very effectively, releasing a pink/red pigment, Betacyanin, when the channel proteins broke down. The leakage of Betacyanin was easy to see and record, and therefore beetroot discs will be used in this experiment.


In this case, the beetroot discs will be placed in different concentrations of detergent. The effects on the beetroot cell membranes will be measured by observing the varying colour intensity of the samples, produced by leakage of Betacyanin.


To ensure that a coherent set of results is obtained, a wide range of concentrations will be used (10% detergent, 1%, 0.1%, 0.01% and 0.001%). These concentrations will be produced in the following way


To ensure that this will be a fair test, three beetroot discs will be placed in each test tube, as was done in the previous experiment involving beetroot discs. The beetroot discs will be cut using a cork borer and a scalpel, ensuring that the size, and therefore surface area of each individual beetroot disc is almost identical. This will help to improve the accuracy and reliability of the results obtained.


To ensure that nothing other than the concentration of the detergent affects the cell membranes of the beetroot discs, the test tubes will be placed in a water bath, which will be maintained at a fairly low temperature to ensure that there is no denaturation of channel proteins within the cell membrane. In a previous experiment concerning the effect of heat on beetroot disc cell membranes, at a temperature of 00C, no denaturation occurred.


Taking this into consideration, the water bath will be maintained at a temperature of precisely 00C. All 5 test tubes will be left in the water bath for duration of exactly 0 minutes. This will be timed using a stop clock.


In order for this to be a fair test, the following variables must be controlled


· Volume of detergent solution


· Duration of exposure


· Number of beetroot discs


In a previous experiment concerning the effect of heat on beetroot disc cell membranes, the varying colour intensities of the samples of coloured liquid produce by the leakage of Betacyanin were judged using only the human eye. This led to some major errors within the results obtained. In this experiment, to ensure that the results obtained are accurate and reliable, a colorimeter will be used. This will eliminate any possible errors that human judgement can cause, and will also provide highly accurate results. The cuvettes will be filled with samples of the coloured liquid produced by the leakage of Betacyanin. Care will be taken to ensure that the transparent sides of the cuvettes are correctly aligned. For each particular concentration, the colorimeter will be ‘zeroed’. The results will be recorded in an appropriate form, and a graph will be produced using these results.


Apparatus


· Beetroot discs


· Detergent (100% conc.)


· 5 Test tubes


· Test tube rack


· Water bath


· Thermometer


· Beakers ( approx)


· Pipettes


· Colorimeter


· Cuvettes (5)





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Do you agree that, when the relationship is over, men and women can remain friends, and even restore the friendship for each other?

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Do you agree that, when the relationship is over, men and women can remain friends, and even restore the friendship for each other? That is, Can the Chinese idiom po4 jing1 chong yuan (Broken mirrors become unblemished) be done?


As we all know, there is no way to restore a broken mirror except that the broken pieces of glass are melted in order to form a new one. Relationship, however, is not the same simple thing as mirrors. Once it was broken, any former intimation is over. To scratch the surface, we can literally liken the relationship between men and women with the mirror and compare men and women with the broken pieces of glass. But if we take a deeper look at this matter, well find that things are not so easy as we expect.


Relationship itself is not a chemical or physical substance as simple as a mirror is. A mirror can be broken again and again, once it is re-melted and recreated. But relationship, we say the love relationship, can¡¯t bear such repetitive destructions. There might be a skillful artisan who is able to restore a broken mirror perfectly, but no one can heal the scars in the minds, especially when they take place between men and women. Usually, this sort of wound is so lethal that insiders often fail to maintain the original relationship and sometimes become enemies to each other.


Men and women who are involved in the relationship cannot be simply treated as pieces of glass. Glass never remembers it was once a portion of mirror. On the other hand, a person can hardly forget that he/she once has her/him and that now the precious link between them is broken. Logically, this kind of memorization of human is helpful to the expecting restoration. Things often go to the other end for we, human, mostly remember of the hurt and the sorrow brought by last breaking. One friend of mine who has tried to treat his first girl as a common friend since she callously said goodbye to him 5 year ago always fails because he can¡®t help recalling the scene every time he sees that girl. Luckily, sometimes links might be reconnected. I do not deny the possibility, but in most cases, it is useless to do any thing to save it, I think.


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Besides the idiom mentioned above, there¡¯s another Chinese idiom ¡°fu4 shui nan shou1¡±(Splashed water is not retrievable). Likewise, breaking of relationship is a unidirectional procedure which we often find after we really lose it. So, erase any imagination in your mind that everything is restorable and cherish the love we possess.





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The belief of truth depends on the aspects of different cultures, and how each individual perceives the world. According to many different cultures, religion is a dominant factor which may influence the belief of truth in an individual. However science is another implication of knowledge which some may abide by, and rely on its philosophies for the means of truth.


In the world today, there are several people who rely on religion to give them their answers of truth, infact more than 8 percent of the worlds people have some sort of faith whether it be buddist, Christian, muslim exc. In all these different cultures there is some god or spiritual belief which may influence them to believe in things differently, and each culture has their own truths which they stand for. Like the people of the Christian faith, which happens to be the largest faith in the world today, and this religion counts for the faith of over 1.8 billion people all around the globe. Their particular believe is one in (a) God and the son of God who is proclaimed to be Jesus. Or take the third largest faith for example, Hinduism, where people happen to believe in several gods, if not hundreds of Gods, each serving a specific duty to the world. However some faiths do not require to believe in a God, like the faith of several native tribal groups which basically believe in mother nature, and the spirits which live amongst the land. By these beliefs mentioned as well as theh several more all around the world, people may come to many different conclusions which may affect what they do and don’t believe to be of truth. And their primary judgement of what they believe is truthful to many of these different religions, is the fact that their believe is correct unlike all the other faiths of the world. So religion, which is an implication which may bring different cultures to different truths, through their various distinct philosophies towards life.


Although religion, is a very potent implication of knowledge which may bring many people to truth, science is another implication of knowledge which may universally bring people to truth. Through the works of science, we are able to discover new things, and these new things that we discover maybe labeled as “truthful”. For example, through the works of science we are able to find out that we all as human beings have a heart. This is a statement which all of us can believe to be of truth, and no matter what language you speak or how we communicate this, it is universally known to be as truth.





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