Wednesday, January 18, 2012

Avition Notes

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Aviation-Aerodynamics Lesson II


Lift equals weight


Thrust equals drag


Accelerate thrust exceeds drag


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Decelerate drag exceeds thrust


Upper camber larger then lower camber


You can fly an airplane backwards


Motion of the air is the thing that affects plane not land


Relative wind is equal and opposite the flight path


Flight path is the aircraft moving direction


Angle of Attack = Chord Line and relative wind


Chord Line goes from the leading edge to trailing edge


That creates the angle of attack


The air is deflected slightly upward over leading edge and slightly downward after the trailing edge


This creating upwash and downwash respectively


The Leading edge of a wing slightly upwards due to the rest of the aircraft called Angle of Incidence


It’s the chord line and the Longitudeanol Axis


LIFT


Provides the upward force which sustains the aircraft in flight


Creation of lift is Bernoulli’s Principle-As the velocity of a fluid increases the pressure of that fluid decreases


Wing produces the Bernoulli effect on the air, a constriction on the air. Slide 10


High pressure lifts the plane off the ground


Newton’s rd law


“To every force in nature there is a corresponding reaction force.”


A portion of the airflow hits bottom of wing and deflects it upward.


The downwash reaction force also deflects wing upward


FACTORS AFFECTING LIFT


PLANFORM


Winspan/average chord = Aspect Ratio


Shape of wing elliptical, tapered, rectangle, delta, swept back


Elliptical is most efficient at slow speeds


CAMBER


Asymmetrical=Top and Bottom halves don’t match up Lower performance aircraft needed to help create lift


Symmetrical-high performance aircraft like military jets because of large force of thrust.


AIR DENSITY


As air density decreases � lift decreases. (Cold air has higher density than warm air)


AIRFOIL VELOCITY


As velocity decreases � lift decreases.


PITCH


Controls angle of Attack (Pitch Up) that increases lift


SLIDE 17 PILOT SLOWING AIRCRAFT DOWN, WE POWER BACK, DRAG NOW EXCEEDS THRUST AND BEGINS SLOWING US DOWN, WHICH RESULTS IN LESS AIRFLOW OF WING, NOW WEIGHT IS GREATER THEN LIFT, in order to hold altitude we need lift to equal weight, TO INCREASE LIFT WE PITCH AIRCRAFT UP AND INCREASE ANGLE OF ATTACK TO INCREASE LIFT = TO WEIGHT SO WE HAVE A HIGHER ANGLE OF ATTACK, SLOWER AIRSPEED BUT CONTINUE TO FLY LEVEL


FLAPS


Aerodynamics of Flaps


Extension of flaps increases the relative camber of the wing


Change in Angle of Attack


Change of Lift-increase


Change of Drag-increase


Allow us to descend without accelerating NOT A SPEEDBRAKE


DON’T SLOW DOWN, INCREASE CONTROL AT SLOW SPEED


Bringing flap down changes Chord Line(no longer directly down center of wing) Angle of attack also changes


TYPES OF FLAPS


MOST COMMON IS = PLAIN FLAP


SPLIT FLAP=ONLY LOWER CAMBER MOVES-LEAST AMOUNT OF AFFECT ON AN AIRCRAFT OF ANY FLAP


SLOTTED FLAP = CREATES OPEN SPACE B/W WING AND FLAP ITSELF


FOWLER FLAP=MOST EFFIECIANT-INCREASES SIZE OF WING


Uses


Takeoffs-allows airborne sooner, less groundroll


Landing-allows for increase decent angle, flown at slower speeds, decreases ground roll


STALLS


Angle of Attack creates to much lift where you can no longer have an effiecient amount of lift from your wing-always occurs at critical angle of attack


It will always STALL AT CRITICAL ANGLE OF ATTACK


Situation where airflow over the wing, which is typically smooth, becomes turbulent and separates from the wing


Stalls start at wing edge against the fuselage of the aircraft


Outer edge of wing has less angle of attack


Design allows to keep control of airelons that let us keep contol


V-speed is the average speed that aircraft will stall at standard day. Warrior is 44 knots


Dirty aircraft stall sooner


LIFT AND WEIGHT MUST BE BALANCED TO MAINTAIN FLIGHT


Less angle of attack will stall at slower speed then one w/ same airspeed but higher angle of weight


TAIL DOWN FORCE


Stops the down pitch and balances the center of gravity


FLAPS AND ANGLE OF BANK DO AFFECT STALL ANGLES


BIGGER PITCH CHANGE ON A FULL THROTTLE STALL THEN ON A POWER OFF STALL


STALL WARNINGS


LOSS OF CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS


BUFFETIN OF AIRFRAME


STALL WARNING HORN


Recovering from stalls


Power up


Pitch down


Apply full power


Regain normal flight


Flaps 5 degrees if fully extended


Accelerate to Vx or Vy


Retract Flaps fully


Resume cruise Flight


LESSON THREE


DRAG


Drag is the resistence created by the air.


Types


Parasite Drag


Skin Friction-result of the surface aircraft being rough


Form Drag-result of objects general shape


Interference Drag-result of the interaction of airflow from joined components of the airframe


Induced Drag-drag associated with the production of lift.


IN SLOW FLIGHT RELATIVE WIND IS MOST PROMINENT IN HIGH ANGLES OF ATTACK


Slide 11 is an aircraft holding altitude


Slow flight we fly backside of power curve


THRUST IS FORCE CREATD BY PROP TO MOVE AIRCRAFT FORWARD


WEIGHT IS A FORCE RESULTING FROM GRAVITY


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