Friday, December 30, 2011

plastic surgery

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For centuries, we have altered our appearance through various forms of cosmetic plastic surgery. The term plastic surgery encompasses two separate categories “reconstructive plastic surgery” and “cosmetic plastic surgery.” While “reconstructive plastic surgery” is performed on abnormal structures of the body resulting from trauma, infection, congenital defects, disease, tumors, etc., “cosmetic plastic surgery” is typically performed to repair or reshape otherwise normal structures of the body.

Today, the number of plastic surgery related procedures performed worldwide continues to grow at an impressive rate. While women account for the majority of all cosmetic procedures performed, more and more men are using plastic surgery as a means of turning back the clock and enhancing their self-image.

The top five surgical procedures according to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery are liposuction, breast augmentation/enlargement, eyelid surgery, nose reshaping, and breast reduction. Approximately 6. million plastic surgery/cosmetic surgical and non-surgical procedures were performed in the United States in 00.

In this essay however I would like to focus on the aspects of the cosmetic plastic surgery. From the head to the feet and any area in between those points, a cosmetic surgery exists to enhance the beauty of the human body.

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The types of cosmetic procedures more commonly performed in modern day society are liposuction, full face-lift, breast augmentation, hair transplant, tummy tuck, and the breast reduction. The number one cosmetic procedure performed is the liposuction surgery this surgery usually averages about $,500.00 per area. Liposuction which is also know as abdominal liposculpture removes fat deposits permantly from the abdomen, this procedure when performed successfully can trim excess fat in the abdomen for a flatter abdomen and more slender balanced shape which provides a psychological lift and an extra incentive to exercising regularly and maintaining fitness.

This procedure usually takes about 1- hours per treated area and is normally done under local anesthesia and heavy sedation, risks and complications include dimpling, lumpiness, numbness, scarring, and discoloration of the skin around the treated area.

During the surgery the areas of the body where the fat is to be removed are marked and tiny incisions are made in the skin, usually in the naval or just below the bikini line, a tube is then inserted and the unwanted fat is removed by a powerful vacuum.

The second most common procedure is the full face-lift, as we age our facial skin loosens and wrinkles the muscles of the neck may weaken as well. With the facelift procedure you can fix these problems by firming and tightening the skin of the face and neck all in one step. This procedure is most effective for the lower face (jowls and neck). The facelift procedure usually cost in average about $5,00.00, the most common benefits of this surgery are to make the person appear to be a decade younger than their actual age.

The surgery usually takes about - hours and can be performed under local or general anesthesia depending on the length of the procedure. A facelift is a surgical procedure, and is subject to all of the usual problems that accompany surgery. But…bleeding from the cut tissue, leading to bruising and possible accumulations of blood under the skin are some risks associated with this surgery.

In the facelift procedure an incision is made from the hair near the temple and continues in front of the ear, around the ear lobe, behind the ear and into the hair. The muscles and sagging tissue are tightened, excess skin is removed, and the remaining skin is repositioned to create a more youthful look, if the neck needs lifting, a small incision may be made under the chin.

The third most commonly performed procedure is the breast augmentation also know as a breast enlargement. This procedure usually averages about $4,500.00 and the most common benefit of this surgery is to enlarge the breasts. It will not however improve nipple asymmetry, move breasts closer together, or lift droopy breasts. This surgery is mainly performed to balance a difference in breast size, improve body contour, or as a post-surgery reconstructive technique.

This surgery usually lasts about 1- hours and is usually done under local anesthesia with sedation. Risks and complications include capsular contracture, and interference with mammography. Capsular contracture is one of the most common complications associated with breast augmentation, it occurs when the scar tissue hardens around the implant. But it is more common following infection, hematoma, and seroma.

According to the FDA, in a clinical study of saline-filled breast implants conducted by Mentor, % of 164 women with implants experienced capsular contracture after years of study, another study by the FDA indicated that 17.5% of 74 women had at least on surgical procedure over an average of 7.8 years because of capsular contracture.

In this surgery silicone shells filled with saline solution are implanted either directly under the breast tissue or beneath the chest wall muscle, giving breasts a fuller and more natural contour.

The fourth most commonly performed procedure is the hair transplant, this surgery averages $,000.00 and the most common benefits of this procedure is that it provides a new looking head of hair although they do not actually add hair to the head they provide the appearance of more hair.

This procedure usually lasts about -4 hours for each transplant and is performed under local anesthesia, risks and complications include scarring on the grafted areas, and infection of the grafted sites. There are two common methods used for removing hair to be transplanted, small circular areas (plugs) which include eight and twelve hairs. Or in long strips along the sides or near the bottom of the hairline.

This surgery is performed by taking strips or patches of hair from the back of the head, the patches or strips are then cut into smaller pieces, which are then “planted” in the balding area then sutures are applied to close the area where the grafts were taken.

The fifth most common procedure performed today is the tummy tuck, this procedure usually averages about $4,500.00 and this procedure is usually performed after excessive weight loss or pregnancy, when the abdomen often fails to return to its original shape. And is usually performed under general anesthesia, the most common benefits to this surgery are that it can dramatically tighten the abdominal muscles, as well as the sagging, excess skin, and accumulated fatty tissue.

This surgery takes about -5 hours depending on the extent of the surgery; a partial tummy tuck takes about 1- hours. Risks and complications include bleeding, reaction to anesthetic, and infection. Scars are to be expected, but they will become lighter and flatter with time. Strenuous exercise and weight loss alone will reduce the bulk of the abdominal wall and tighten the muscle tone; however, the stretched skin may not be able to contract without surgery.

This surgery is performed by making a small incision across the lower abdomen, just above the pubic area and another around the belly button to free the surrounding skin, and then all of the skin is separated from the abdominal wall. Then the loose muscles are pulled from the left and the right sides and sutured together, the excess skin is removed and a new opening is made for the belly button at the right position.

The sixth most common procedure performed is the breast reduction; this surgery reduces lifts and reshapes the breasts. It can also reduce the size of the areola. Many women seek breast reduction to alleviate painful discomfort and other conditions (back pain, shoulder pressure, rashes, skin tags, etc.) as well as to improve the appearance of their breasts. This surgery averages about $,000.00.

This surgery usually lasts about -4 hours and risks and complications include breast feeding problems, hematoma (pooling of clotted blood; risk is -4%) or asymmetry which is small differences in shape or size of the breasts are not uncommon following breast reduction surgery.

During this surgery a small incision is made which is normally in a keyhole pattern, fat and extra tissue are then removed and the areola and nipples will be repositioned to a higher place and then excess skin is removed from beneath the breast. In this surgery there is a satisfaction rate that ranges from 80% to 5%, and symptom relief is reported from 70% to 100%.

Isn’t it amazing that in modern society that if you aren’t satisfied with your body, any part of your body that you can always tuck it, lift it, or suck it out; my suggestion is if you were born with it, keep it and leave it the way it is!


1. Goldwyn RM, editor. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the breast, Boston; little brown & co 176; 15-0



4. Dr. Jorges Planas Barcelona, Spain

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