Saturday, October 29, 2011

justice and injustice

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Each society has its government, each government owes its citizens justice and each citizen owes responsibility to follow the rules of the government. The existence of numerous laws not only provides security and civilization for the society and avoids anarchy, but it also offers certain individual rights and protects the privilege of the citizens. It is true that”There are two types of laws just and unjust. In The Republic, Plato attempts to demonstrate through the character and discourse of Socrates that justice is better than justice is the good which men must strive for, regardless of whether they could be unjust and still be rewarded.why Hobbes believes that the person who believes breaking a covenant could be to one’s benefit is a fool, we must understand his definition of justice. “Justice is the constant will of giving to every man his own.” Meaning that justice is the established idea that you get what you deserve. Each person has their own opinion on what they believe the word “Justice” symbolizes and means particularly to them. Franz Kafka may not have the same interpretation or outlook on what we see as justice or in this case injustice in his novels, which is difficult for a reader to interpret by just reading.


Would you like a twin brother or sister? One might simply be able to be manufactured no matter how old you are. In fact, your parents don’t even need to be involved. You can have two or three or even ten! Since Scottish scientists reported the successful cloning of a sheep named Dolly.







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Idols: Do we honour the dead or do we honour our lies?

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As a teenager, growing up in Ireland in the 10s, I was always looking for some idol to identify with.


I always wanted a white idol, an Irish idol but never really found one. I found persons with whom I could identify like Michael Collins but noone whom I would strive to be like. Politicans in Ireland are frequently corrupt and strive to present that superficial image so pivotal to American politics.


The point Im about to make is that dispite the fact that one knows that a certain individual is most probably fake and possibly even breaks major moral rules for an individual, they will still allow concessions to that individual because they embody part the person themselves.


In a sense, the person in providing a concession for their own mental shortcoming.


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My first ever Idol was Bruce Lee. Truly he was one of the greatest martial artists that ever lived and many of the principles by which he lived his life, I adapted myself and have found have been major keys to success. My friends and I trained like maniacs at Kung Fu and always wanted to be the best there was. We were incredibly dedicated to our art, we were pioneers till the age of 1...bearing in mind Im Irish, and my peers began drinking at 1 and the vast majority drank(abused) regularily by the age of 16. Bruce Lee is an individual whom people throughout the world of all different walks of life identify with.


Bruce Lee died of a cerebral odema, though rumours persisted of murder throughout Hong Kong for various reasons ... some plausible, some ridiculous, all inexorably consuming.


Then Tupac Shakur was one of my next idols, surprising because not only do I live in a tactitly tolerant society, but I also hated rap music as a youngster. Tupac had something similar to Bruce Lee, a level of conviction, a level of confidence. His music is haunting and has introduced me to a world I never knew existed - I dont mean South Central Los Angeles....to be honest, I dont particularily care about South Central LA, and would also dispute the fact that it DOES exist!


Nope, the world Im taking about is one entirley different.


Although I consider myself to be relativley articulate, I find it difficult to put into words just exactly what that world is. Perhaps its emotion, which is why it is difficult to pinpoint.


Tupac Shakur was gunned down in a drive-by shooting in 16 in Las Vegas. Similar to Bruce Lee, many intensley interesting rumours persist about his death and the conjecture by fans rivals even the imaginative genius of Tupac himself!


Next and I suppose finally was Mike Mentzer. Perhaps the greatest bodybuilder who ever lived in my opinion, though he never won an Overall Mr.Olympia title. He won the heavyweight 17 Mr.Olympia, but lost overall to Frank Zane who was the lightweight victor.


The following year he resigned from bodybuilding in disgust at an apparent fix, in which Mr.Arnold Schwarzenegger returned after a six year break from bodybuilding to reclaim his 7th Mr.Olypia in what is probably one of THE most controversial sporting events in the history of Planet Earth.


Mike Menzter died in 001


What do all these idols have in common?


All were underdogs, who were never afraid to oppose public opinion, in fact, they succeeded by their opposition.


All used drugs(anabolic steroids) and some form of stimulant(amphetimines) which in my culture would be strictly frowned upon.


All were only realised for their full potential, AFTER they had expired, and were then realised to be perhaps the greatest in their field among their peers and fans.


Well, it doesnt matter I could go on.


But the thing I must point out is that as different as these these individuals are from race, culture, occupation etc. I have managed to idenitify something within my own consciousness which allows me to identify with them.


Many people would readily accept that after death, the man dies and the legend is born, however, perhaps it is not the man whom one ever identified with, they simply facilitated a method for the individual to expand their own perceptions and beliefs.


To sum up, the most succesful president in the history of the United States is commonly regarded as Ronald Regan(note I wrote president not politican. They are ENTIRLEY different things. LOL!).


And Ronald Regans profession before presidency was acting.


And what is acting but perfecting malleability.


Is your mind malleable?





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Friday, October 28, 2011

war on iraq

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War on Iraq


Should we go?


After /11, Americans have had a fear of our homeland security. Are we secure in this day of age? For the past 15 years, Iraq, has been a big problem for many nations. Iraq being a strong supplier of the world’s oil resources, has had a leader who gives fear to many nations. Saddam Hussein is the Iraqi leader who in the past has tried to spread his domination and beliefs in many countries. In the past the U.S has slowed it down and has kept his force on hold. But are we still safe? Recently the U.S has had word that nuclear force has reached the hands and mind of Saddam Hussein. Many other factors has our nation thinking of whether or not war is an option to end all fears. Should we go to War with Iraq? There are many different views of what the U.S should do in this situation and I will give my take on it.


Saddam Hussein and his regime has been a strong totalartarian government for quite some time now. Since


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Many people have different opinions on the war with Iraq. I took a survey around school and with people I knew to see what they thought on this whole topic. There were 50 people I polled and the results were 6 of those people said we should while 0 said we should not and the other 4 said they did not care. Most people did not really know what was going on with this issue. It is sad for these people to vote on what they don’t even know about and even worse that some don’t care. It seems that the majority of college students do not care about this matter but are opiniated just by guessing.


There are many other Americans where this topic is of much importance.


I believe we should go to war with Iraq to stop future catastrophe’s. Saddam is what Hitler and Stalin were in my belief and if we don’t stop him now, who knows what can go on in the near future. With





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Thursday, October 27, 2011

my journey to an associates degree

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Associates Degree


My Journey to an Associates Degree


In Business Administration


Making life better in some way seems to be ingrained in my nature. I


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often ask myself how can I be happier, healthier or wiser. I am using my goal of achieving an associates degree in business administration as a tool for creating a successful better life. It has been a very since I have studied and I want to improve the way I currently study. I have determined that I am a bottom up learner in hope that this knowledge will provide me with the skills needed to study effectively. Knowing this is one step towards achievement.


Bottom up learners prefer to have the information in a logical manner,


building up from the fundamentals, foundation, and basics and then


finishing with the big picture. Understanding the way I learn new things, my


individual learning style, will help me to choose learning activities that


ensure I learn effectively. This does not mean that I cannot learn from


methods that are not specifically suited to my style - in fact it can be good to


choose things outside my normal style occasionally, to create a balance and


help to improve my learning skills. I am a practical thinker. I base my decisions on practicality, details, and controlled data. I consider my strengths to be planning, supervising, administrating, and organizing. A considerable weakness I posses would be implementing ideas. I have no imagination and lack creativity. This is one of my main objectives for improvement in this course. After all, who wants to be thought of as dull and boring?


My biggest challenge has been adjusting to the distance-learning program. The absence of face-to-face interaction means that most of the learning material


Associates Degree


is very text-intensive. I know it is natural to worry about a new undertaking, and natural to be a little afraid. I just pray that I can be motivated and disciplined enough to study without constant reminders. I had to do an honest assessment of my needs and abilities. It seems education at a distance relies heavily on solid abilities in reading, writing, and thinking. Fortifying my communications and problem-solving skills will pay off in lots of ways, as well.


I have decided to try to adapt learning that is presented to me so that it more closely matches my preferred style. I have tried many of the recommended approaches for my learning style and have had success thus far. The tools I have learned will assist me on my journey to successful goal achievement, overcoming life’s obstacles and maximizing my potential. Knowing my goal of obtaining an associates degree in business administration and understanding my style of learning will help me to achieve. Furthermore, the methods I learn that do not serve me now may serve me or someone I know later.





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Enlightened Absolutism

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Enlightened Absolutism can be viewed as a streamed lined style of monarchical government that relies on a single branch of governmental decision making, which is founded on sound logical reason. Frederick the Great, who ruled the eastern German state of Prussia from 1740-1786, was a catalyst for this new style of government.


The enlightened absolutists such as Frederick justified their absolute authority by proclaiming themselves servants of the state or the people. Frederick believed that he had a special tie or ‘social contract’ with the people he ruled. “The citizens only granted pre-eminence to one of their fellows in return for serves which they expected from him”. Frederick believed in this partnership and believed it was his duty to protect the interest of his public and in doing so took a direct responsibility for every decision made regarding it. In serving the people Frederick was an advocate for social reform, which comprised of an important component of enlightened absolutism. By actively pursuing reform Frederick believed government would be able to stamp out unequal treatment before the law and preserve rights and property. Frederick eliminated the use of torture in judicial proceedings and judicial punishments, abandoned capital punishment and greatly reduced corruption in the judicial system. He passed a series of measures to protect religious minorities and abolished the serf system, which tied tenant farmers to certain properties for life.


Aside from social reform, Frederick believed that a ruler (especially of a small State) should be ever so inclined to rule his people directly, by assuming complete control over political decision-making. He disliked the approach France took in its political make-up, entrusting the political decisions to appointed ministers, who in turn were responsible for the state’s affairs in finance, war, marine and foreign affairs. Frederick believed delegating responsibility furthers to complicate the decision making process. “They must all be coordinated simultaneously, and their joint effect, if operated according to sound rules of policy will bring the greatest benefit to States ”. Individual ministers become self-serving, interested only in matters, which benefit them, and promoting their own careers, thus making it increasingly more difficult to come to an agreement on matters, which affect the state.


According to Frederick, all actions taken must be well reasoned, and all financial, political and military matters must flow towards one goal, which is the strengthening of the state and the furthering of its power, and for Frederick this means action must come from a single authority. In France and Britain internal and foreign affairs were debated and argued amongst ministers, which Frederick contended as being the direct consequence of separating the affairs of government. This is in part why Frederick argued in favour of enlightened absolutism, it streamlines the political decision making process. Furthermore, it eliminates self-serving corrupt individuals and places the interest of the people back in the hands of its rightful owner, that being the ruler.


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This leads itself into Frederick final account on enlightened absolutism. As stated Frederick believed that an absolute monarch for smaller States was essential for their survival. “For larger kingdoms advance together with their abuses and maintain themselves by their weight and their intrinsic strength, while small states are quickly crushed unless they are active vigorous and dynamic”. Enlightened absolutism offers fluidity in decisions and actions that must be taken in both internal and foreign affairs, and helps to protect the state against selfishness and jealousness of delegated authority.


Is it possible for Frederick to be both a philosophe and an absolute monarch? There is no question that Prussia under the leadership of Frederick the Great was governed by an absolute monarch. Frederick was in complete control of every political move and action under his state and did so as the sole power. Can a ruler of an absolute monarch also be a member of the philosophes, which included journalists, activists, academics, and intellectuals who were seeking to change the world as well as understand it? Most of the philosophes believed in monarchical government. In general they had a utilitarian approach for society. They were by and larger concerned with the happiness and well being of the people. They fought against tyranny, advocated social reform, and were activist of toleration and justice for all. They were also opposed to established forms of institutions, especially the church. As already stated, Frederick was a champion of social reform, and was consistent with the values and principles proposed by the philosophes. One is led to believe that Gibbon would argue that Frederick is and can be a philosophe and an absolute monarch. In doing so he would refer to the example of the Roman Empire, in his book ‘The decline and fall of the Roman Empire’ Gibbon states that “ The vest extent of the Roman Empire was governed by absolute power, under the gaudiness of virtue and wisdom. The armies were restrained by the firm but gentle hands of fours successive emperirors, whose characters and authority, commanded involuntary respect. The forms of the civil administration were carefully preserved by, Nerva, Trajan, and the Atoninus, who delighted in the image of liberty, and were pleased with considering themselves as the accountable ministers of the laws.”


Under the right circumstances one is led to believe that in theory it would be possible for Frederick to be both a philosophe and an absolute monarch, and this would seem to be true of Frederick given the accounts of his actions. What must be taken into consideration are Frederick’s motives. Is he acting out of humanitarian concern or political ambition and state security? Larger and more powerful enemies namely France and Russia surrounded Prussia during his rule; therefore it was paramount to maintain social order and stability. Frederick needed a strong industry and economy, as well as support of the people to maintain a large enough army to defend its boarders.











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Wednesday, October 26, 2011

winning statergies

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still i have not formulated any essay but soon ill submit it.but ll be doing it very soon.


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Tuesday, October 25, 2011

Alexander The Great

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Alexander the Great was one of the greatest conquers in all of the history of


Rome. His genius and ability to think in hard situations helped greatly to the country of


Macedonia, which he ruled. Most of his life he lived as a fighter and warrior. Alexander


was a smart, brilliant man who used his brains when it came down to fighting.


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Alexander was born in an age of violence, conquest, and civil war. Alexander


was born in 56 B.C. in Pella. His father was Phillip the second who ruled all of


Macedonia. He was a shrewd king and general who conquered Greece. He stole the


reign of Macedonia from his brother’s son. Alexander’s mother was Olympias. She was


brilliant yet hot-tempered. Her father was King Neoptoelemus the first of Epirus.


Alexander’s sister was Cleopatra (but not the Egyptian queen.) Alexander’s ancestor was a man known as the hero Achilles. Alexander through his life carried a copy of “Iliad.” Phillip taught Alexander that all the Macedonian kings were descendents from the hero Hercules, son of Zeus, and the high god.


Alexander’s parents hated each other. Philip had lesser wives and children. One


child was Philip Arridaeus who was retarded. The rumor was that Olympias had


poisoned the mother of Arridaeus. Olympias once told Alexander that Philip was not his


real father. Philip never admitted to it though. Yet he always had made fun of Alexander


because of his high voice.


There were many legends about Alexander. As a boy Alexander tamed a horse


named Bucephalus. Later on in life when he was conquering Asia a steed carried him as


far as India and then died. Alexander built a city and named in Bucephalas after the


horse.


Alexander was known for his quick thinking and his smarts. In 4 or 4 B.C.


Phillip hired Aristotle to tutor Alexander. Aristotle encouraged Alexander interest in


other countries and people. He noticed Alexander’s curiosity in plants and animals.


Later on he followed the Greek principle of “ a sound mind in a sound body.” He studied


literature, philosophy, and politics. He also trained in sports, physical fitness, and


warfare. School ended abruptly for him when he was sixteen years old because his father


called him away for duties in the government.


At sixteen his father left for war. Alexander was to serve as the regent of


Macedonia. He led an expedition through modern day Bulgaria and fought barbarians


and settled the city of Alexandropolis. After the expedition he became the general of


Philip’s army. There was a lot of tense between Alexander and his father. Alexander


though, did protect his father in war while he played dead because he was injured.


Alexander always had a bad temper. When his father was having the celebration


for his final marriage the bride’s uncle gave a toast. He had said he hoped his niece


would give birth to a ligament heir. Alexander had yelled at the uncle, ”What about me?


Am I a bastard?” He threw his goblet at the man. Philip was very angry with Alexander


for this, which made a huge fight between them. There is no record of what they said but


it is known that Philip pulled his sword out to strike Alexander with but he fell drunken


to the floor.


Alexander and Olympias moved left Macedonia because of what happened at the


celebration. Later they reunited but Alexander had no trust in his father. Philip had


arranged to have Arridaeus marry the daughter of Persia’s governor. Alexander thought


that this meant Arridaeus would become king. He planned to marry her himself. Philip


found out about this plan and placed Alexander under house arrests and banished all his


friends, except for Hephaestion, from the kingdom. He divorced Olympias thinking she


had encouraged Alexander to do so. While divorcing Olympias he gave their daughter,


Cleopatra, hand in marriage to Olympias brother, king of Epirus.


In 6 BC. King Philip was going into the theater where his daughter was having


her wedding. He was stabbed in the heart by the captain of his bodyguards, Pausanias.


Pausanias ran across the vineyard but got snagged by a vine and was caught by three of


the king’s bodyguards. People thought that Olympias and Alexander helped plot the


death of King Philip the second.


At twenty-three years old Alexander became King Alexander the third. He did


not just get to take the throne though. He had several rivals that thought they should get


the throne. One of them was his cousin, Amyntas who Philip also took the throne from.


Alexander was a handsome, clean-shaven, heavy drinking man. He was in good health


and was very athletic. He loved reading, music, and the theater. He was a loyal and


brilliant general. He proceeded with Philip’s plans to take Persia and most of Asia


Minor. He named himself “Lord of Asia.” He tried to treat Persians fair so that they


would accept him as their leader. Yet his impulsiveness, bad temper, and drinking got in


the way.


He antagonized the men around him so much that one of his favorite general’s son


plotted to kill him. Alexander found out about this and killed the son and the general.


Once a general successor mocked him and Alexander killed him that minute.


In 7, he captured some rebels and fell in love with the chief’s daughter Roxane.


He married her and was pregnant two times but the first one was stillborn. While he was


married he conquered India. His troops didn’t want to go on so they headed home and


fought and the way back. In one battle Alexander had an arrow taken into his chest and


almost died.


When he got home he found out that the governors he left in charge had abused


the authority. He executed them all. He wanted peace for his people and the Persians.


He ordered eighty of his men to marry highborn Persian women. Alexander married a


woman by either the name of Barsine or Stateira, King Darius daughter, while he was


still married to Roxane. He promoted many of the Persians to higher rankings. Yet his


efforts for unity fell short.


On June 1, 5BC. Alexander the Great died of an illness that involves a


very high fever. People now think it was either malaria or typhoid fever.


Roxane was pregnant at the time Alexander died with Alexander’s son.


Barsine could have also been pregnant too but there is no proof of this. Roxane sent a


letter to Barsine asking her to come to Babylon. Barsine did what she was asked.


Barsine and her sister came to Babylon and Roxane murdered both of them and threw


their bodies into a well. Roxane then gave birth to Alexander Aegus who became King


Alexander the fourth but he was co-king with Alexander’s brother Arridaeus until


Olympias had him killed. The empire Alexander had worked so hard for, fell apart.


Alexander was never a follower. He was always having some way to go


about something a different way then people would expect. He didn’t always make the


best choices but at least he was a leader and without him Asia would not be what it is


today.





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Fitting Into Society

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It is evident that our society has changed significantly because of the grounds and aftermath of World War I. The world we live in today contrasts greatly with that ten years ago. This aftermath has remolded our society’s economy, employment, entertainment, i.e.�and of utmost importance, gender roles. Subsequent to the war, men’s role in society has suffered little effect. It is that of women, which displays a significant and noticeable alteration. Woman’s sexuality, status in the workplace and role in the family and marriage has all been affected. The standard proper roles within these must be followed. The entire female population must shift its role toward one of motherhood and domesticity, just as a chameleon adapts to its surroundings. As women, a higher degree of responsibility and vocation lay on your backs.


Desire for individual freedom is evident of females today. Signs show a more reckless generation of females, full of truthfulness, fast living, and sexual behavior. Alyse Gregory once stated, “But for the first time…girls broke through those invisible chains of custom and asserted their right to a nonchalant, self-sustaining life of their own with a cigarette after every meal and a lover in the evening to wander about with…” The “new woman” of today displays her sexy side to the public in an innocent manner. Moreover to femininity display, these women engage in premarital sex; however, morals have not dropped within these women despite first impressions and many peoples’ beliefs. I understand these new orthodox attributes to be appropriate and embrace backing of good judgment. We have lost many brave and patriotic men through the hardships of fighting. Subsequently, this reduction of the male population has caused fewer women to “save” their selves for that perfect man. Additional responsibility is consequent of sexual activity and marriage, yet, greatly outweighs the less promising idea of becoming a lonely widow. Many of the females I look upon this instance will become wives and mothers sooner than desired and see this responsibility first hand. Although, increased work and stress and a decline in leisure money and time will result, the family is mandatory, for our nation’s future lies in your hands as mothers. Your offspring make and fuel the economy.


As for married couples, with or without children, the woman has the responsibility and job as housekeeper. Women’s job in society today belongs nowhere except in the home. Women who fight the system of traditional gender roles in the workforce work to hard only to fall short of a man’s earnings. Alice Rogers recently published data of Week’s Earnings of Males and of Females in Factories provides sufficient evidence that a woman’s work in the factory can only expect to earn slightly over half of what a man would receive. Besides, with most marriages resulting in children and families, who shall take care of the children? Shall you neglect them or just deplete your hard earned money on a babysitter? No, it is your job to take care of the children. God intentionally gave the male stronger attributes, making him designed to do the dirty work of this machine age. As your husband works, you should take care of the home dust, do laundry, sweep, sew, mend, wash dishes and prepare meals for the family. Of utmost importance, do not let being your own boss and knowing that you will not be fired result in laziness. Consider these attributes a privilege; nonetheless, remember that housekeeping is your job and is needed by the family.


Lastly, the females must take care of our nations’ men. Feed and take sufficient care of your husband when he is home from work. If he works hard for the income that pays for the families’ comfort and living, match his effort throughout the tasks of the home manage the money, pay the bills and take care of your husband and the children. Do not be foolish and waste your husbands’ money on material items for yourself. As a wife, you should do anything possible to save his money; his money is what fuels the whole family. Make your husband feel loved and at ease so that he can always work top notch and stress free, doing your part to help your husband earn a promotion one day. In accord, Ernest and Gladys H. Groves states “Of course the wife who helps her husband on to success makes the home life restful and refreshing.” Your hard work will be noticed through time, for hard work early leads to an easier life when you are older. Make his day seem worthwhile and your marital and sexual relationships will be greatly enhanced from your efforts.


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So ladies, when your new sexy approach rewards you with a good man, do not lose him. Take his hand in marriage and provide him with your care in the home. If both husband and wife convey hard work, overall satisfaction and relaxation at the end of the day and throughout your lives will be fulfilled. Changes in society will indefinitely occur; yet, domesticity and motherhood are the roles placed on women of today.





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Monday, October 24, 2011

Interview at Rockville Center (after "Interview at Weehauken": fatal duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr)

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“Interview” at Rockville Center


Rockville Center Summer 66 (and Stanford/Crete/JetBlue Flight 7/- Setauket/Smithtown/Sacramento) descended directly from homecoming weekend at Kansas in November 16. I had returned from a football recruiting trip to�you wont believe this�Northwestern, during the weekend of the Cuban Missile Crisis, and played a spectacular(ly lucky) game which made me a High School All-American (sorry; it matters).


A legend named Gayle Sayers (who had played high school football in Omaha--and knocked me out cold on the very first play of my career ) would be playing his final season at KU the next year, and they were scouring the nation for a hotshot to replace him (in the event, an impossible task he was one of the greatest athletes in American history--and author of a book and documovie [Brians Song] about the fatal cancer of a heroic teammate).


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Freshmen couldnt play on varsity teams in those days, which meant that everybody in Kansas already knew that they didnt have TheNextGreatOne in that years crop. So the hunt was on for a high school running back who--well, the invitation that accompanied the plane ticket the idiots delivered to me shamelessly (and embarrassingly) plagiarized the most famous paragraph in the history of American sports reporting .1


In those benighted times big-time football schools provided hostesses to escort recruiting targets (not Northwestern, you’ll be happy to hear), and mine turned out to be the local SororitySuperStar, Linda Paradise, brightshininglight of the Pi Phi Pledge Class. The whole house was in on her spectacular entrance down a spiral staircase, which of course I assumed was aimed at my exalted presence.





Not it turned out that shed been humiliated recently by the quondam heir to the Sayers mantle (you may not believe this either--when I remembered it I couldn’t--but I checked and its true it was some kid from New Jersey, for Gods sake) and I, as a Nebraska SS, was to be her revenge (she was from Omaha, and wed circled each other for years).


Jumping to curfew time (did NW still have that for women when you were there?), the agenda finally unfolded I was to be the, uh, instrument for a (semi-)public demo contrary to her Pure-As-The-Driven-Snow image, she did give head, as we used to say, and as well as--no, better than--her AlphaPussy-Pledge Rival and successor with Jersey-Joe-something-or-other---and All Would Be Made Clear. To ALL.


If you’re still reading this, I’m sure you wonder what anything so ridiculous has to do with you, or anything that matters (or should matter) to anyone worth knowing, let alone worth caring for. I guarantee that it has everything to do with both of us; what happened that night has colored everything I ever do with/about/to SexMonsters--the Third Gender4�I met after you.





In any event, we were in a convertible provided by the team; one of her sisters had saved a parking spot strategically located between the parking lot and the freshmen womens dorm, and she became extremely friendly. Although she denied it later, Ill always believe she was tipped off when her former friend and the new girlfriend arrived; in any event, when she precipitously started to carry out the plan, I stopped her. Where what happened next came from, bad word choice, I dont know, but





1. “On a bright September Saturday two Falls away,


The Fifth Horseman of the Apocalypse...


“Will gallop onto the KU Plain�


And into History . . . .


Famine, Pestilence, Destruction, and Death,


Make Way for Steve. . .


[not Stephen then--cf. your diary]


The AA next to his name stands for All-American today,


But it will mean Apostle of the Apocalypse


Before too many JayHawk Saturdays pass away.


[I had just been named Catholic Schoolboy Player of the Year�hence the Apostle BS; ‘clever’


writing, eh?


The original Four Horseman lead had been written by Grantland Rice�about


four football legends from Notre Dame


“Outlined against a blue-gray October sky,


The Four Horsemen rode again.


In dramatic lore they are known as


Famine, Pestilence, Destruction and Death.


These are only aliases.


Their real names are Stuhldreher, Miller, Crowley and Layden.”





I can hear you retching from here. I know this is gruesome; please bear with me.]


[My GOD, Lynn literally at the last second before I sent this, the reference


to Notre Dame reminded me why I went to Dartmouth and not


Northwestern Coach Ara Parseghian, who had convinced me to come to


NW, jumped to Notre Dame after that season, and I KNEW that NWs


brief run of great teams would end--which in fact it did.


Jesus CHRIST, what If... ?!]


Id hate to lose you (??) to laughter-induced cardiac arrest, especially before you finish reading this, so I hope youre seated safely.


Or re-something; I never was too clear on the concepts of the convoluted sexual politics in KUGreekJockocracyLand.


4 Closely related to Third Rails. Very closely.


If you have any inclination to fight me on this, dont go there--youd fail the acidlitmustest in a nanosecond at 600 PM in any trendy bar/restaurant/bistro/etc. everyone--especially female everyones--knows instantaneously who the SMs are normal women will be whining that all the good men (self-cancelling phrase?) are married/taken/gay/etcetera, etcetera, etcetera (pace Zorba the G [BTW--my fraternity nickname was “Zor” the movie opened in Hanover the week I ‘pledged’ Animal House]).


You and the other chosen few (the term is deliberate) never have had, never will have--never could have--that thought, even in a Force Ten blizzard howling through the LongNight at the South Pole.


Please try to suspend your genetic predisposition to fight back You are a Sex Monster, and that immutable Fact/Force of Nature has everything to do with what Im trying to say here, and more than a little to do, I am certain beyond peradventure, with what has happened to you in your life--not to mention what (and to whom) you have ‘happened. (And that euphemism almost rivals the ‘original’ [See below]).


The title is (doubly) allusive It adverts, first, to the “Interview at Weehawken, the euphemism for the catastrophic duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr at Weehawken, New Jersey (just across the Hudson, on a narrow ledge above the river 100 yards from the Lincoln Tunnel), July 11, 1804.


Second, the events described here happened one Friday night/Saturday morning during a two-week period in early/mid-July, Summer 166. I hope that neither Friday nor Saturday actually were July 11; Im afraid to look up the day/date, but I went to Weehawken that Sunday.


The original Interview was fatal. So was the second


At the time I had no clue at all that the person I wanted to be, hoped to become, died that night.





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Sunday, October 23, 2011

Victorian Studies: Politics & Society:Why do early to mid-nineteenth century feminists concentrate on law, education and work rather than political rights?

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It can be seen that early to mid-nineteenth century feminists tended to concentrate on issues of law, education and work rather than political rights for women because of the restrictions imposed by the dominant British domestic ideology of separate spheres for men and women. Rather than opposing the ideals of society, most feminists tended to manipulate them to their own advantage, in order to gain access to the public sphere and to influence society in alternative ways.


What the term ‘feminist’ means when applied to the Victorian period is debatable. As Caine comments, the word was not coined until the end of the nineteenth century and because of this it can be viewed as problematic when applied to the Victorians, because it is not a word that they would have used to describe themselves. Some historians use it to describe Victorians who were active within the women’s movement, whilst others also apply it to a wide range of female activists and writers who had little to do with the women’s movement (Caine, 1, p. 4). Levine also expresses the view that for this reason it is important to use the term with caution ‘we need, therefore, to consider the possible range of meanings that words such as feminism take on in specific historical contexts’. It is important that we do not attribute current understandings of feminism onto the Victorians or use historical figures to make sense of current issues (Levine, 14, p. 11). Olive Banks, among others, has come to the conclusion that a close definition is not possible and that feminism is best described as ‘any groups that have tried to change the position of women, or ideas about women’ (Caine, 1, p. 5).


Historian’s understanding and interpretation of Victorian feminism has developed and changed over the years. Where once it was understood as a belief in the need for equal rights between men and women, Caine comments ‘there is now a widespread recognition of the importance Victorian feminists attached to establishing and maintaining sexual differences between men and women’ (Caine, 1, p. ). This enabled females to assert their merits and virtues rather than inadequacies (Caine, 1, p. ). Only the most radical of feminists believed the doctrine of the women’s sphere to be incorrect, viewing it as ‘a coercive social construct which must be entirely set aside’ (Helisinger, 1, p.0). For the most part, rather than a total rejection of these values, those who sought to improve women’s rights worked with them. Levine comments that ‘for many women committed to the fight for women’s rights, the most effective weapon was not the total rejection of that ideology but a manipulation of its fundamental values’ (Levine, 14, p. 1).


Ethical values in early Victorian Britain can be seen to have stemmed directly from the teaching of the church, through which the notion of women’s submission to men had become religious law (Levine, 14, p. 11). The religious revival of the early years of the nineteenth century meant that women’s role as the ‘bearers of religious and moral values was clarified and strengthened’ (Levine, 14, p. 1). This was both empowering and restrictive for women. This role placed women in the position of moral guardians within the British domestic ideology of separate spheres, thus idealising a situation that had been created by industrial capitalism. The ideology of the separate spheres, the private and the public, was not actually obtainable for many families; in particular for the working classes who could not afford the luxury of women remaining at home. However it still had a great influence over people’s values.


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Feminists in the early to mid-nineteenth century tended to focus on issues of law, education and work rather than on their political rights in accordance with the values of separate spheres. This more gradual infiltration into the masculine public sphere finally allowed women to gain more legal and political rights later in the century once they had fought and won a number of battles which made them more equal to men in other ways - e.g. through development of women’s education. The prominent ideology of women as moral guardians gave women the ideal argument for entering the public sphere - ‘After all, if women’s purity made them natural custodians of religious teachings and values, then their effect in public life could only be uplifting’. (Levine, 14, p.1). This sentiment of moral superiority became the leading force of many women’s campaigns in this period (Levine, 14, p. 1). Tyrell comments on the developing perception of women as a group with moral authority - for a group or league to have the support of ‘womanhood’ carried positive connotations of the symbolic values of Victorian society. There were definitely benefits for a pressure group that was identified as a lady’s cause. (Tyrell, 188, p. 15).


Women’s politics cannot be assessed in the same way as male political campaigning, as because as they were denied access to existing channels of political influence women sought involvement in politics in alternative ways (Levine, 14, p. 17). Women’s type of involvement in political issues often varied according to their class. Many middle class women became involved in and supported a number of causes by joining ladies committees during the first half of the nineteenth century, such as the anti-Corn Law League, the Anti-slavery League, and temperance societies and so on. Perkin comments that religious belief gave many middle class women the courage to tackle social evils, and through this they gained wide experience and leadership skills. Some women spent their entire lives promoting social reform under the guise of philanthropy (Perkin, 18, p. 05). Levine comments that the majority of nineteenth century feminists came from well-assured middle class backgrounds, this was probably because they had more time to spare for causes than working class women who were often more distanced because of the constant worry of economic uncertainty. This class divide has caused many historians to separate Victorian feminism into two strands, bourgeois feminism and social feminism (Levine, 14, p.16).


Many working class women were however involved in a number of political movements, such as the Peterloo Massacre, debates over the New Poor Law 184, and also the Chartist’s movement during the 180s and 1840s. They were also able to exercise consumer power by refusing to patronise shops that did not support the Chartist movement (Rendall, 15 p. 8). Many working class women also agitated on behalf of their male relations supporting their fight for the vote, for example, the Blackburn Female Reform Society, founded in 181, had this aim (Rendall, 185, pp. 5-6). It was notable however that working women’s level of political involvement declined after the 1840s. Landed and upper middle class women had more direct political power - they sometimes canvassed for members of their family standing for election, and could also exercise a certain amount of political rights by virtue of their situation and family connections (Rendall, 185, p. ). Perkin comments on upper class women’s involvement in politics ‘Although women did not sit in parliament, they expected to exert influence over their friends who did, and gain patronage for their relatives, friends and proteges’ (Perkin, 1, p. 0).


However, as Harman comments, despite women’s involvement with political and moral issues, there were many barriers against women physically attending public meetings, which created further problems with their involvement in public issues. Harman gives the World Anti-slavery Convention, (London 1840) as an example. Women visiting from America were made to sit in a separate gallery at this event, and were excluded from the proceedings, demonstrating the high-level of opposition to women’s presence at such events. Socially there were all sorts of problems with women physically appearing in public spaces, especially if it would mean that they would be mixing with men. There were fears that a woman would become tainted if she was to enter the public sphere ‘Female participation in public life, and the female public appearance itself would compromise a women’s virtue’ (Harman, 18 p. 6). This was not only a subject of male concern, the writings of women such as Sarah Stickney Ellis and Sarah Lewis during the middle of the century echoed these worries.


These issues of women’s involvement in the public sphere were reflected in the literature of the period. For example, the Bronte sister’s novels often portrayed women as present, yet screened off from significant public experiences (Harman, 18, p.). Novelists such as Gaskell dealt with the subject of the public sphere in a more positive way than Ellis and Lewis. As Harman demonstrates, in her novel North and South (1854), Gaskell portrays her character Margaret Hale’s active involvement in local politics, and demonstrates how because of this her character becomes vulnerable to misconstruction and misunderstanding. However, ultimately Gaskell portrays her loss of purity as a positive experience, suggesting an alternative to the women’s mission advocated by Lewis (Harman, 18, p. 17).


The education of females was a subject that aroused much attention and debate during the nineteenth century. Rendall comments that at the beginning of the century the role of the mother as educator of children was increasingly emphasised as important (Rendall, 185, p. 10). This naturally led to debates over whether enough attention was devoted to the education of the mother in order that she was able to educate her children properly. Rendall observes that the issues surrounding this subject were also connected to the advancement of women - a better education would enable a woman to hold a more equal place in society - ‘the argument for the potential equality of women, given educational opportunity, could arise from a concern from the education of mother ‘ (Rendall, 185, p. 116).


Again, as before where the idealisation of women as moral guardians had lead some to question why women shouldn’t take part in the public sphere, the debate over the education of mothers led people began to question the standard of education women should have in order to be able to educate their children. This gradually enabled women to gain access to better educational opportunities, and to slowly assimilate themselves into the public sphere and strengthen their position in society. Rendall quotes Mary Leman Grimstone in her article Female Education (‘New Moral World’, February 185) there arose a ‘a new moral courage among women, an assertion of their equal moral status and equal intelligence’ (Rendall, 185, p. 117).


From the 180s onwards attention this interest in the education of the educator was also directed towards the training of governesses, which was often found to be lacking, and the debates opened out to address the issue of secondary and even higher education for women (Rendall, 185, pp. 14-5). By the 180s and 1840s the case for the education of mother was widely supported in the UK, US and France. By this time there was also a shift in the argument - the role of the mother was still central to the debate, but the need for women to be able to support themselves had also become an issue. There were many women who did not have fathers or husbands to support them, and for whom there were few options of how to earn money. Wages were also very poor in many cases, even in factories where women were relatively well paid in comparison to other areas, they would only earn between two thirds to a half of what men earnt (Perkin, 1, p. 176). It was a natural progression of the debate when it came to be suggested that women trained as teachers (Rendall, 185, p.15). This resulted in a number of schools being founded in order to train middle class girls for this profession.


In the same way that educational opportunities for females had begun to change for women by the mid-nineteenth century, so had their legal status. Ironically, although women were idolised as the moral guardians of society, they had little (or if they were married, no) political rights at the beginning of the nineteenth century (Harman, 18, p. ). From the late 180s onwards this slowly began to change, as the issue of custody of children was gradually revised, giving mothers more rights over their children (Holcombe, 18 pp. 5-44), and eventually the Women’s Property Act was introduced. Holcombe states that this was the most important of legal reforms won by feminists in the nineteenth century, as it removed the severe legal disabilities that married women faced. In the history of English law property and personal status was closely related, so this act was particularly significant for the advancement of women’s position in society. However, the vote was still a long way off for women. In the early years of the nineteenth century, when very few males had the vote and women were seen as unequal to men in so many ways, any attempts to lobby for female suffrage were not taken seriously. The issue was raised repeatedly throughout the early years of the nineteenth century. The 18 Act clearly stimulated women’s interest in the issue, and there were repeated calls for women to be franchised. However, this issue was not taken seriously until later in the nineteenth century, and even then it was still a long time until all women all women received suffrage in 18.


Victorian feminists were also concerned with the issues surrounding women and work. As early as 1804 a Ladies Committees was formed with the objective of ‘promoting the education and employment of working women’ (Perkin, 1, p. 176). Women were paid considerably less than men despite doing the same work. For married working class women this was particularly hard, many such women worked out of necessity to supplement the family income, and this made them more likely to accept wages that were far from fair. Because of the large numbers of women looking for work employers were able to keep lowering wages, and often extended working hours. This in turn had a very negative impact on single women who often could not survive on this money. Many women turned to prostitution, at least occasionally to make ends meet. In 185 Harriet Martineau argued for the end of ‘artificial depreciation’ of women’s work and the assumption that women were dependent on male relatives. Liberal feminists of the 1850s answer to the problem was for better education for women and in new kinds of occupations, however this was still inline with the feminine ideals of the time, and the work had to be perceived as ‘natural’ for women (Rendall, 185, pp. 184-5).


Working conditions for many workers were also very bad, and a number of women’s committees were committed to lobbying for reform, There was a significant amount of government intervention in this area, and a number of acts were passed, for example, the 184 Mines and Colleries Act, which attempted to protect the working woman (this one excluded women from working underground). However, although many people saw this as progress, not all working class women favoured acts such as these as they were effectively excluded them from better paid work. Other acts such as the Factory Acts also gradually reduced the working hours particularly of women, young people and children improving working conditions.


In conclusion, it can be seen that feminists in the first half of the nineteenth century tended to concentrate on issues of law, education and work rather than engage in struggles for their own political rights. This is not to say though that Victorian women were not involved in the political world, their indirect influence seems to have been very great. Perkin comments that ‘All the great moral and social changes of the nineteenth century were pioneered by private activity and benevolence. Both unmarried and married women gave their time and energies to a vast number of associations, societies, leagues, guilds and alliances’ (Perkin, 1, p. 17). The dominant domestic ideology of separate spheres can be seen to have been used by women to advance their position rather than to restrict their cause, and was used to bring issues out into the political arena (Perkin, 1, p. 17). Lacey describes the 1850s as a turning point for women, and she appears to be correct (Lacey, 186, p.1). By the 1850s it can be seen that a strong women’s movement was emerging, which would go on later to take on the fight for married women’s rights, custody issues, higher education and entrance into the professions for women, and eventually to win the fight for female suffrage (Perkins, 1, p. 1).


Bibliography


Caine, B. (1). Victorian Feminists. Oxford University Press Oxford/New York.


Harman, B.L. (18). The Feminine Political Novel in Victorian England. University Press of Virginia Virginia, USA.


Holcombe, L. (18). Wives and Property. University of Toronto Press Toronto, Buffalo & London.


Lacey, C.A. (Ed.). (186). Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon and the Langham Place Group. Routledge and Keegan Paul Inc New York and London.


Levine, P. (14). Victorian Feminism 1850 - 100. University Press of Florida USA.


Perkins, J. (1). Victorian Women. John Murray Ltd London.


Rendall, J. (185). The Origins of Modern Feminism Women in Britain, France and the United States, 1760 -1860. Macmillan London.


Rendall, J. (Ed.). (187). Equal or Different, Women’s Politics 1800 - 114. Basil and Blackwell Oxford.


Reynolds, K. D (18). Aristocratic Women and Political Society in Victorian Britain. Oxford University Press New York and Oxford.


Tyrrell, A. (180) ‘Women’s Mission’ and Pressure Group Politics in Britain (185 - 1860)’. Bulletin of the John Rylands Library of Manchester. Autumn 180, Vol. 6, pp. 1 - .


Please note that this sample paper on Victorian Studies: Politics & Society:Why do early to mid-nineteenth century feminists concentrate on law, education and work rather than political rights? is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Victorian Studies: Politics & Society:Why do early to mid-nineteenth century feminists concentrate on law, education and work rather than political rights?, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on Victorian Studies: Politics & Society:Why do early to mid-nineteenth century feminists concentrate on law, education and work rather than political rights? will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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trolley investigation

If you order your essay from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on trolley investigation. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality trolley investigation paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in trolley investigation, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your trolley investigation paper at affordable prices with custom writing service/a>!



Friction Investigation


Introduction


In this experiment the aim is to discover which material opposes the motion of a trolley travelling down a ramp. This opposing motion is called friction and acts between two surfaces. To determine which material has opposed the motion of the trolley the most, the speed at which the trolley travels down the ramp when a material is used on the surface of the ramp will be measured.


In this experiment the independent variable is


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The different materials used for the surface of the ramp.


The dependant variable of the experiment is


Due to the alteration of the material used on the surface of the ramp, the speed at which the trolley travels down the ramp will differentiate for each material used.


The control variables of the experiment are


The equipment used when the experiment is repeated.


The length of the different materials used to cover the surface of the ramp.


The height and angle of the ramp when the stool is used as the support.


The distance between the two sensors positioned along the ramp.


The distance allowed for the run up to the first sensor.


The other factors, which I could investigate that affect the friction of the trolley


The force pressing the surfaces together.


The aerodynamics of the trolley.


The weight of the trolley.


The height of the ramp.


The different grades of sand paper available on the market.


Background information


Friction is a force that acts between solid surfaces as they move over one another, and when objects move through a liquid or gas. The force of friction is caused by the roughness of two surfaces. If the surfaces are clean and dry, the force needed to overcome friction depends upon


The materials from which the surfaces are made.


The surface finish, i.e. rough, smooth or polished.


The force pressing the surfaces together.


Friction between contacting surfaces is often a disadvantage because it produces heat and wear. Friction can be reduced by the use of ball bearings and lubrication.


Water, snow and ice all reduce the grip between the ground and the object moving over the surface (e.g. a vehicle.) When there is water or ice on a road, the humps and hollows of the rough road surface are levelled out. The reduced friction causes cars and other vehicles to skid, as the tyres are unable to grip the ground. Reduced friction makes it more difficult to stop a car. The brakes stop the wheels from moving, but if there is not enough grip between the tyres and the road the car will slide forward.


When an object is moving there are two main forces at work, acting in opposite directions � the force that is exerted, propelling the object forward, and friction. The friction creates a drag in the opposite direction to movement and so it tends to slow the object down. If there is no friction (as there is in space) then once an object moves it will continue to move forever.


Sources used in order to comprise the background information


GCSE Science Double Award, Physics � K Foulds. Page 10 & 11.


Letts, GCSE Revision notes, science higher � Page 75.


Schools Council Modular, Courses in Technology, MECHANISMS � Oliver & Boyd. Pages 1 & 1.


The question that I want to answer after conducting this experiment is Which material slows the trolley down the most?


Prediction


I predict that if sand paper is used on the ramp’s surface then the speed of the trolley will be slower when compared to the other materials used on the surface of the ramp.


The reason why I believe that the speed of the trolley will be slower when sand paper is used on the ramp’s surface is because of the following reason


Sand paper has a rough surface when clean and dry and thus will prevent the trolley from travelling down the ramp - there will be more grip between the wheels of the trolley and the surface of the ramp and this will therefore slow the trolley down, because the force of friction (acting in the opposite direction to which it is travelling) is greater than the force of exertion that propels the trolley down the ramp.


References used in order to comprise this prediction


GCSE Science Double Award, Physics � K Foulds. Page 10 & 11.


Letts, GCSE Revision notes, science higher � Page 75.


Schools Council Modular, Courses in Technology, MECHANISMS � Oliver & Boyd. Pages 1 & 1.


Fair Testing


To make this experiment a fair test, the following criterion need to be met


The equipment used will be the same when the experiment is repeated.


The length of the different materials used to cover the surface of the ramp will be 75cm.


The height of the ramp when the stool is used as the support, which is cm.


The distance between the two sensors positioned along the ramp will be 75cm.


The distance allowed for the run up to the first sensor. This distance will be 0cm.


Accuracy


To make the results gained from this experiment accurate, the following conditions need to be enforced while conducting the experiment


Ensure that the trolley isn’t pushed down the ramp. The trolley should be released down the ramp with its spring facing downwards.


The distances and heights will be measured exactly with precision and accuracy with the use of a ruler.


If the material being tested isn’t long enough to stretch across the distance of the two sensors, ensure that there are no gaps or overlaps between the pieces of material that are used to compensate for the full length.


Safety


To make this experiment safe the members of my group will do the following procedures


A buffer will be positioned at the end of the ramp in order to prevent the trolley from travelling further along the corridor.


All stools and other objects that may obstruct the apparatus of the experiment will be placed elsewhere.


The trolley must include a spring so it can absorb the shock after hitting the buffer.


Method


Equipment needed in order to carry out the experiment


Stool


Ruler


Ramp


Trolley


Data logging equipment � included with a computer


School bag (to used as the buffer)


x Clamps


Tape


Black card


Sandpaper


Wallpaper


Lino


Cling film


Control � the material the ramp in made of (wood).


Carpet


1. Get stool and place ramp on the support of the stool (this support is cm in height.) At the bottom of the stool position a school bag.


. Plug the computer into the socket and open the data-logging programme. The data logging equipment will be used to measure the speed at which the trolley is travelling down the ramp.


. Position the two clamps so that they are 75cm away from each other. Ensure that before the first clamp, there is 0cm allowed for the ‘run up’ distance to the first sensor.


4. Plug each of the sensors into the appropriate sockets and clamp the sensors with the use of the clamps.


5. Attach a piece of black card vertically onto the trolley with the use of tape. This black card will be used so that the sensors do sense the trolley as it passes down the ramp. Adjust the height of the clamp so that the trolley does actually pass through the sensors.


6. Secure a piece of sandpaper (with tape) to the ramp so that it stretches across the distance of the two probes (75cm). If the piece of material isn’t obtainable in that length then use the pieces of the same material to compensate for that length. When doing this make certain that there are no gaps between the pieces of material or there are no overlaps are evident.


7. Place the trolley at the top of the ramp before the run up distance to the first sensor and simply release the trolley. Before releasing the trolley make sure that the data logging system is set to ‘ready’. Also check that the trolley’s spring is facing downwards when each test is conducted.


8. Before each of the tests are carried out, a test run will be required to see whether the sensors situated along the ramp has sensed the trolley movement down the ramp. If not then this means that the height of the sensors above the ramp will have to be adjusted so that the trolley does pass through the sensors.


. Repeat the procedures mentioned in step 7 through to six times for each of the 6 different materials to obtain average results, which will then be plotted on a graph. Repeating the experiment six times for each material being tested will allow reliable results to be processed.


10. To test another material, replace the current material being tested with a different material, reciting steps 7 through to 10.


Diagram The diagram below shows the equipment once it has been set up.





Results


Speed of trolley (m/s)


Material Test 1 Test Test Test 4 Test 5 Test 6 Average


Sandpaper 0.88 0.67 0.6 0.71 0.66 0.76 0.7


Lino 0.8 0.0 0.8 0.76 0.4 0.78 0.84


Cling Film 0.74 0.87 0.88 0.1 1.01 0.5 0.8


Carpet 0.5 0.5 0.50 0.48 0.5 0.44 0.50


Wallpaper 0.0 0.1 0. 0.1 0.8 0.0 0.1


Control (wood) 0.87 1.01 1.0 1.01 0.4 1.00 0.8


(N.B. The average results were rounded off to two decimal places where appropriate. These average results were then included in the bar chart shown below.)





Conclusion


From the processed results I conclude that when carpet was used on the surface of the ramp, this caused the most friction between the trolley and the surface as the speed of the trolley was a lot lower compared to when the other materials were used on the ramp’s surface.


Most of the results that I obtained appear to have a relatively large difference when the tests were repeated for each material. For example when the first test was carried out with sand paper the speed of trolley was 0.88 m/s in the second test that was conducted the result was 0.67 m/s there is a difference of 0.1 m/s! The only set of results that seem to be reliable are the wallpaper results, as the results for each of the tests seem to be around the same number and thus there isn’t a large difference.


The results (shown in the results table) would therefore substantiate that my prediction was incorrect as I stated that if sand paper was used on the ramp’s surface the speed of the trolley would be slower when compared to the other materials used on the surface of the ramp, when in fact it was carpet that produced the most friction out all of the materials due to the speed of the trolley being lower.


The reasons why carpet slowed down the speed of the trolley is because


The carpet that was provided for use in this experiment was considerably thicker than the other materials and due to this feature there was more grip between the wheels of the trolley and the surface of the ramp and this therefore slowed the trolley down, because the force of friction (acting in the opposite direct to which it is travelling) was greater than the force of exertion that propelled the trolley down the ramp.


If one refers to the bar chart one will discover that the bar showing the average speed of the trolley when carpet was applied to the ramp is lower down than the rest of the bars, indicating that the speed of the trolley was low compared to the speed of the trolley when the other materials were used, this would also prove that the results undermine the my prediction.


Evaluation


Overall this experiment went well, the members of my group and I encountered no problems while conducting this experiment.


Personally I think that the results gained after conducting this experiment are unreliable as I realised that there were a number of anomalies with the results that my group didn’t repeat, as there wasn’t a sufficient amount of time to achieve this. The reason why I believe that there are anomalies in the results is because when the tests were repeated for each material there appeared to be a relatively large difference between the results for each of the tests. One example of this is in the results was when the first test was conducted with sandpaper - the speed of the trolley was 0.88 m/s in the second test the result obtained was 0.67 m/s - a difference of 0.1 m/s. The only set of results that seem to be reliable are the wallpaper results, as the results for each of the tests seem to be around the same number and thus there isn’t a large difference.


The reasons why I think that these anomalies in the results occurred is because…


The trolley may have been given a push down the ramp instead of being released down the ramp due to the force of gravity acting upon the trolley.


The distances and heights may have been measured inaccurately or may not have been the same when each of the different tests were carried out.


There may have been gaps and overlaps between the pieces of material that were used.


The sensors used to detect the trolleys movement may not have been triggered by the trolley when the tests were carried out.


There may have been indentions along the ramps surface.


Throughout the experiment I think that we were quite accurate to acquire accurate and reliable results because we ensured that the trolley wasn’t pushed down the ramp and allowed the trolley to be released down the ramp with it’s spring facing downwards; the distances and heights were measured exactly with precision with the use of the ruler and when the material wasn’t long enough to stretch across the distance of the two sensors, we attempted to ensure that there were no gaps or overlaps between the pieces of material that were used to compensate for the full length. Despite abiding to these measures that I proposed to enforce in order to make the experiment as accurate as possible, anomalies in the results did still occur and this may have been because the members’ of my group and I didn’t enforce the measures for accuracy with skill.


I believe that there isn’t enough evidence to support a firm conclusion, because we didn’t repeat the anomalous results, as there wasn’t enough time to do so. These anomalous results should have been repeated to gain a more reasonable result, and then for sure I will be certain that prediction is either right or wrong.


To improve the existing experiment to obtain more reliable and accurate results I would use materials that weren’t available in separate pieces - I would ensure that the material was already cut to size with accuracy; make sure that the trolley isn’t pushed down the ramp; make certain that there is enough time to recite any anomalous results; use a ramp that doesn’t have any indentions � I will use a ramp with a smooth surface and before conducting each and every test I will firstly make absolutely sure that the sensors do get triggered by the trolley’s movement down the ramp.


To take the investigation further I would investigate each of the other factors that affect the friction of the trolley travelling down the ramp


The force pressing the surfaces together.


The aerodynamics of the trolley.


The weight of the trolley.


The height of the ramp.


The different grades of sand paper available on the market.





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