Saturday, July 2, 2011

French Midterm Outline

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French Midterm


Imparfait/Passe Composee


Limparfait is a descriptive past tense which indicates an ongoing state of being or a repeated or incomplete action. The beginning and end of the state of being or action are not indicated.


Limparfait indicates


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I. Habitual actions or states of being


Quand j�tais petit, nous allions à la plage chaque semaine. When I was young, we used to go to the beach every week.


Lann�e dernière, je travaillais avec mon père. I worked with my father last year.





II. Physical and emotional descriptions time, weather, age, feelings


Il �tait midi et il faisait beau. It was noon and the weather was nice.


Quand il avait 5 ans, il avait toujours faim. When he was five, he was always hungry.





III. Actions or states of an unspecified duration


Je faisais la queue parce que javais besoin de billets. I stood in line because I needed tickets.


Il esp�rait te voir avant ton d�part. He was hoping to see you before you left.





IV. Background information in conjunction with the pass� compos�


J�tais au march� et jai achet� des pommes. I was at the market and I bought some apples.


Il �tait à la banque quand il la trouv�. He was at the bank when he found it.





V. Wishes or suggestions


Ah ! Si j�tais riche ! Oh, if only I were rich!


Si nous sortions ce soir ? How about going out tonight?





VI. Conditions in si clauses


Si javais de largent, jirais avec toi. If I had some money, I would go with you.


Sil voulait venir, il trouverait le moyen. If he wanted to come, he would find a way.





VII. The expressions être en train de and venir de in the past.


J�tais en train de faire la vaisselle. I was (in the process of) doing the dishes.


Il venait darriver. He had just arrived


Limparfait of all verbs�regular and irregular�is formed by dropping the -ons ending from the present indicative nous form of the verb and adding the imparfait endings


je -ais nous -ions


tu -ais vous -iez


il/elle/on -ait ils/elles -aient


Être is the only irregular verb in the imparfait. It has an irregular stem �t- but uses the same endings as all other verbs. Examples of regular and irregular verbs in the imparfait


parler finir rendre aller être


je parlais finissais rendais allais �tais


tu parlais finissais rendais allais �tais


il parlait finissait rendait allait �tait


nous parlions finissions rendions allions �tions


vous parliez finissiez rendiez alliez �tiez


ils parlaient finissaient rendaient allaient �taient


As in many other tenses, verbs which end in -ger have minor spelling changes in the imparfait


MANGER


je mangeais nous mangions


tu mangeais vous mangiez


il mangeait ils mangeaient


Note verbs whose imparfait root ends in an i will end up with double i in the nous and vous form of the imparfait


�tudier


nous �tudions


imparfait root = �tudi-


Thus


j �tudiais nous �tudiions


tu �tudiais vous �tudiiez


il �tudiait ils �tudiaient


Pass� compos�


Le pass� compos� is used to express


I. An action or state of being completed in the past


As-tu �tudi� ce weekend ? Did you study this weekend?


Ils ont d�jà mang�. They have already eaten.





II. An action repeated a specific number of times in the past


Hier, jai mang� cinq fois. I ate five times yesterday.


Nous avons visit� Paris plusieurs fois. Weve visited Paris several times.





III. A series of actions completed in the past


Samedi, il a visit� sa mère, a parl� au m�dicin et a trouv� un chat. Saturday he visited his mother, talked to the doctor, and found a cat.


The pass� compos� has three English equivalents


I danced } Jai dans�


I have danced


I did dance


The pass� compos� is a compound verb. It is formed by conjugating the auxiliary verb (either avoir or être) and adding the past participle. When the auxiliary verb is être, the past participle must agree with the subject.


The past participle of regular verbs is formed by dropping the infinitive ending of a verb and adding �, i, or u, depending on the original ending of the verb


-ER verbs -IR verbs -RE verbs


Verb parler r�ussir vendre


Remove -er -ir -re


Add � i u


Result parl� r�ussi vendu


Irregular verbs usually have irregular past participles


apprendre appris atteindre atteint


avoir eu boire bu


comprendre compris conduire conduit


connaître connu construire construit


courir couru couvrir couvert


craindre craint croire cru


d�couvrir d�couvert devoir d�


dire dit �crire �crit


être �t� faire fait


instruire instruit joindre joint


lire lu mettre mis


mourir mort offrir offert


ouvrir ouvert naître n�


paraître paru peindre peint


pouvoir pu prendre pris


produire produit recevoir reçu


savoir su souffrir souffert


suivre suivi tenir tenu


venir venu vivre v�cu


voir vu vouloir Voulu


Imparfait Pass� compos�





I. An ongoing action with no specified completion vs One or more events or actions that began and ended in the past


Jallais en France - I was going to FranceJe visitais des monuments - I was visiting monuments Je suis all� en France - I went to France Jai visit� des monuments - I visited some monuments


II. A habitual or repeated action vs A single event


Je voyageais en France tous les ans - I traveled (used to travel) to France every year Je visitais souvent le Louvre - I often visited the Louvre Jai voyag� en France lann�e dernière - I traveled in France last year Jai visit� Paris samedi - I visited Paris on Saturday


III. Description/background info; set the scene of how things were or what was happening when... + ...when something happened, interrupting the description/background.


J�tais à la banque quand... - I was at the bank when... Je vivais en Espagne quand... - I was living in Spain when... ... quand Chirac est arriv�. - ... when Chirac arrived. ... quand je lai trouv�. - ... when I found it.


IV. General description of physical or mental state of being vs Change in physical or mental state at a precise moment or for an isolated cause


Javais peur des chiens - I was afraid of dogs Jai eu peur quand le chien a aboy� - I was scared when the dog barked


V. Expression of the time of day or age in the past


Il �tait cinq heures du matin - It was five a.m. C�tait son anniversaire; il avait douze ans - It was his birthday; he was twelve.


House of Etre Verbs


aller - to go


arriver - to arrive


descendre (redescendre) - to descend / go downstairs


entrer (rentrer) - to enter


monter (remonter) - to climb


mourir - to die


naître (renaître) - to be born


partir (repartir) - to leave


passer - to spend time


rester - to stay


retourner - to return


sortir (ressortir) - to go out


tomber (retomber) - to fall


venir (devenir, parvenir, revenir) - to come


Object Pronouns


Direct Objects


The direct object is the person or thing that receives the action of the verb in a sentence. To find the direct object in a sentence, ask the question Who? or What?


Im eating bread - Je mange du pain.


What am I eating? Bread.


He sees Marie - Il voit Marie.


Who does he see? Marie.


The French direct object pronouns are as follows


me / m me


te / t you


le / l him, it (masc)


la / l her, it (fem)


nous us


vous you


les them


Indirect Objects


Indirect objects are the people or things in a sentence to/for whom/what or the action of the verb occurs


Indirect objects are the people or things in a sentence to/for whom/what or the action of the verb occurs.


Im talking to Pierre. - Je parle à Pierre.


To whom am I talking? Pierre.


He buys books for the students - Il achète des livres pour les �tudiants.


For whom does he buy books? - The students.


Indirect object pronouns are the words that replace the indirect object, but only when the indirect object is a person. The French indirect object pronouns are


me / m me


te / t you


lui him, her, it


nous us


vous you


leur them


Like direct object pronouns, French indirect object pronouns are placed in front of the verb.


Im talking to him. - Je lui parle.


He buys books for them - Il leur achète des livres.


Im giving the bread to you. - Je vous donne le pain.


She wrote to me - Elle ma �crit.


Commands


-Refelxive pronouns come after the verb in affirmative commands but before the verb in negative commands.


(Me = moi and Te = toi in affirmative commands.)


Positive Negative


T�l�phonez-moi Ne me t�l�phonez pas


Lève-toi Ne te lève pas


Achète-le Ne l’achète pas


Allons-y N’y allons pas


Donnes-en aux oiseaux N’en donnes pas aux oiseaux.


Reciprocals


Indirect Object Verbs Direct Object Verbs (agree)


S’�crire S ‘aimer


Se t�l�phoner Se surer la main


Se poser Se d�tester


Se sourire S’embrasser


Se dire Se connaître


S’acheter S’aider


Se promettre Se disputer


Se regarder


At someone/to someone (talking to someone) Someone (loving someone ; kissing someone)


Simple reciprocal examples


Ils s’�crivent tous les jours. �they write to eachother every day.


Vous vous connaissez, n’est-ce pas ? �You know eachother, don’t you ?


When using reciprocal verbs in PC, make agreement of the past participle if the reflexive pronoun is a Direct Object.


-Nous nous sommes aides


-Elles se sont regardees


Indirect Objects do not agree the past participle.


-Nous nous sommes telephone.


-Elles se sont pose des questions.


Some pronomial verbs have different meanings, they’re called idiomatic


Tu as trouve le syndicat d’initiative ? Did you find the tourist info office ?


Ou se trouve le syndicat d’initiative ? Where is the tourist info office ?


Elles ont perdu toutes leurs affaires. They lost all their belongings.


Elles se sont perdues pendant l’excursion. They got lost on the excursion.


Conditional


The conditional is a verb mood used for events that are not guaranteed to occur; often they are dependent on certain conditions. It is translated as would in English.


The French conditional is mainly used in si clauses if ___ then ___.


Il mangerait sil avait faim - He would eat if he were hungry.


Si nous �tudiions, nous serions plus intelligents - If we studied, (then) we would be smarter.


The verb vouloir is used in the conditional to express a polite request


Je voudrais une pomme - I would like an apple


Je voudrais aller avec vous - I would like to go with you.


To form the conditional of -ER and -IR verbs, add the appropriate ending to the infinitive. For -RE verbs, drop the final E before adding the ending.


Singular Plural


1st person je -ais nous -ions


nd person tu -ais vous -iez


rd person il -ait ils -aient


The only irregular conditional conjugations occur in about two dozen verbs which have irregular stems but use the same conditional endings listed above. Here are the French verbs with irregular conditional stems


Verb Conditional stem Similarly-conjugated verbs


acheter achèter- achever, amener, emmener,lever, promener


appeler appeller- �peler, jeter, projeter, rappeler


aller ir-


avoir aur-


devoir devr-


envoyer enverr-


essayer essaier- employer, ennuyer, nettoyer, payer


être ser-


faire fer-


pleuvoir pleuvr-


pouvoir pourr-


savoir saur-


venir viendr- revenir, devenir, parvenir


voir verr-


vouloir voudr-


Notes


1. The exact same verbs are irregular in future conjugations.


. The conditional stem always ends in R.


Here are examples of -ER, -IR, -RE, and irregular verbs in the conditional


parler choisir rendre aller


je parlerais choisirais rendrais irais


tu parlerais choisirais rendrais irais


il/elle/on parlerait choisirait rendrait irait


nous parlerions choisirions rendrions irions


vous parleriez choisiriez rendriez iriez


ils/elles parleraient choisiraient rendraient iraient


Simple Future


Le futur proche is used when the upcoming event is to occur in the near future. It is usually translated as going to. It is formed by simply conjugating the verb aller (to go) and adding the infinitive of the action that is about to occur.


Je vais aller au magasin - Im going to go to the store


Ils vont manger dans 5 minutes - They are going to eat in 5 minutes


The distinction between le futur and le futur proche is not always clear - there are many situations where you can use either one.


To form the future tense of -ER and -IR verbs, add the appropriate ending to the infinitive. For -RE verbs, drop the final E before adding the ending.


Singular Plural


1st person je -ai nous -ons


nd person tu -as vous -ez


rd person il -a ils -ont


The only irregular future conjugations occur in about two dozen verbs which have irregular stems but use the same future endings listed above. Here are the French verbs with irregular conditional stems


Verb Future stem Similar verbs


acheter achèter- achever, amener, emmener, lever, promener


appeler appeller- �peler, jeter, projeter, rappeler


aller ir-


avoir aur-


devoir devr-


envoyer enverr-


essayer essaier- employer, ennuyer, nettoyer, payer


être ser-


faire fer-


pleuvoir pleuvr-


pouvoir pourr-


savoir saur-


venir viendr- revenir, devenir, parvenir


voir verr- revoir


vouloir voudr-


Notes


1. The exact same verbs are irregular in conditional conjugations.


. The future stem always ends in R.


Here are examples of -ER, -IR, -RE, and irregular verbs in the future tense


parler choisir rendre aller


je parlerai choisirai rendrai irai


tu parleras choisiras rendras iras


il/elle/on parlera choisira rendra ira


nous parlerons choisirons rendrons irons


vous parlerez choisirez rendrez irez


ils/elles parleront choisiront Rendront iront


Interrogative and Demonstrative Pronouns


Lequel (which usually means which) is arguably the most difficult French pronoun, for three reasons


I. It has to agree in gender and number with the noun it modifies


singular plural


masc. lequel lesquels


fem. laquelle lesquelles


II. Like the definite articles le and les, lequel and its plural forms contract with the prepositions à and de


à + lequel de + lequel


auquel auxquels duquel desquels


à laquelle auxquelles de laquelle desquelles


As an interrogative pronoun, lequel replaces quel + noun.


Quel livre veux-tu ?Lequel veux-tu ? Which book do you want?Which one do you want?


Je veux la pomme là-bas.Laquelle ? [Quelle pomme ?] I want the apple over there.Which one? [Which apple?]


Je pense à mon frère.Auquel penses-tu ? [À quel frère...] Im thinking about my brother.Which one are you thinking about?


Demonstrative pronouns (this one, that one, the one[s], these, those) refer to a previously-mentioned noun in a sentence. They must agree with the gender and number of the noun(s).


singular plural


masculine celui ceux


feminine celle celles


Each of the four demonstrative pronouns can refer to something nearby or far away (e.g., celui can mean this one or that one).


Demonstrative pronouns cannot stand alone; they must be used in one of the following constructions


I. With an attachment As with demonstrative adjectives, you can distinguish between this one and that one, these and those with the suffixes -ci (here) and -là (there).


Quelle fille la fait, celle-ci ou celle-là ? Which girl did it, this one or that one?


Je ne sais pas si je veux ceux-ci ou ceux-là. I dont know if I want these or those.





II. In prepositional phrases, usually introduced by de to indicate possession or origin


Quel film veux-tu voir ? Celui de la France ou celui du Canada ? Which film do you want to see? The one from France or (the one from) Canada?


Je ne peux pas d�cider entre ces deux robes. Celle de soie est plus jolie mais aussi plus chère que celle de coton. I cant decide between these two dresses. The silk one is prettier but also more expensive than the cotton one.





III. Followed by a relative pronoun + dependent clause


Celui qui a menti sera puni. He who / Whoever lied will be punished.


Ceux qui sont polis recevront un cadeau. Those who are polite will receive a gift.


Subjonctif - French Subjunctive - Usage


The subjunctive mood is used to express actions which are subjective will/wanting, emotion, doubt, possibility, necessity, judgment. It is nearly always found in dependent clauses introduced by que. The subjects of the dependent and main clauses are usually different. Remember that that is not always required in English.


Je veux que tu le fasses. I want to you do it.


Il faut que nous partions. It is necessary that we leave.


The subjunctive is used when the main (independent) clause expresses subjectivity, as with the following cases


I. Verbs/expressions of will which express an order, a need, a piece of advice, or a want


aimer mieux que to like better / to prefer that


demander que to ask (someone to do something)


d�sirer que to desire that


empêcher que to prevent


�viter que to avoid


exiger que to demand that


pr�f�rer que to prefer that


proposer que to propose that


souhaiter que to wish that


sugg�rer que to suggest that


vouloir que to want that


il est important que it is important that


il est inutile que it is useless that


il est n�cessaire que it is necessary that


il est normal que it is normal that


il est temps que it is time that


il est utile que it is useful that


il faut que it is necessary that


il vaut mieux que it is better that


II. Verbs/expressions of emotion or feeling which indicate fear, happiness, anger, regret, surprise, or other sentiments.


avoir peur que to be afraid that


craindre que to fear that


être content que to be happy that


être d�sol� que to be sorry that


être �tonn� que to be amazed that


être heureux que to be happy that


être surpris que to be surprised that


être triste que to be sad that


il est bon que it is good that


il est dommage que it is too bad that


il est �tonnant que it is amazing that


il est honteux que it is shameful that


il est rare que it is rare that


il est regrettable que it is regrettable that


regretter que to regret that


III. Verbs/expressions of doubt, possibility, and opinion


chercher ... qui to look forJe cherche un homme qui sache la v�rit� (he may not exist = doubt)


d�tester que to hate


douter que to doubt


nier que to deny


il est douteux que it is doubtful that


il est impossible que it is impossible that


il est improbable que it is improbable that


il est possible que it is possible that


il est peu probable que it is improbable that


il nest pas certain que it is not certain that


il nest pas clair que it is not clear that


il nest pas �vident que it is not obvious that


il nest pas probable que it is improbable that


il nest pas s�r que it is not certain that


il nest pas vrai que it is not true that


il semble que it seems that


il se peut que it may be that


Note the following verbs and expressions do not take the subjunctive when they are used in the affirmative, because they express facts which are considered certain. When negative or interrogatory, they require the subjunctive (Example Penses-tu quil soit sympa ? Oui, je pense quil est sympa, Non, je ne pense pas quil soit sympa.)


connaître (quelquun) qui to know (someone) that


croire que to believe that


esp�rer que to hope that


être certain que to be certain that


être s�r que to be sure that


il est certain que it is certain that


il est �vident que it is obvious that


il est probable que it is probable that


il est s�r que it is certain that


il est vrai que it is true that


il me (te, lui...) semble que it seems to me (you, him...) that


penser que to think that


savoir que to know that


trouver que to find/think that


IV. The following conjunctions


à condition que provided that


à moins que unless


afin que so that


avant que before


bien que although


de crainte que for fear that


de peur que for fear that


en attendant que while, until


jusquà ce que until


pour que so that


pourvu que provided that


quoi que whatever, no matter what


sans que without


these conjunctions are followed by the ne expl�tif Mangeons avant que nous ne partions - Lets eat before we leave


Note the following conjunctions do not take the subjunctive, because they express facts which are considered certain


ainsi que just as, so as


alors que while, whereas


après que after, when


lorsque when


parce que because


pendant que while


puisque since, as


quand when


tandis que while, whereas


V. The verbs in sentences with the indefinite pronoun ne ... personne, ne ... rien, quelquun, or quelque chose as the subject of the main clause.


VI. Main clauses which contain the words seul, unique, premier, dernier, or any superlative


Cest la seule personne que je connaisse.


Cest l�tudiante la plus intelligente que jaie.


NOTE There is no future subjunctive. Even if the action is to happen in the future, the present subjunctive is used. However, there is a past subjunctive.


I know it seems overwhelming, but the thing to remember is the subjunctive = subjective. That should help you figure it out at least 0% of the time.


Subjonctif - French Subjunctive - Regular verb forms


Many students of French find that the subjunctive is very difficult to master, but hopefully this lesson will simplify matters for you. In Part I, we will learn how to form the present subjunctive of regular verbs. In Part II, we will learn the present subjunctive of irregular verbs. And finally in Part III, we will learn to use the subjunctive.


For all regular verbs (-ER, -IR, and -RE), take the rd person plural form (ils) of the present tense of the verb, drop the -ent ending to find the stem, and add the subjunctive endings as follows


parler choisir rendre


Ils... parlent choisissent rendent


stem parl choisiss rend


Subjunctive endings


... que je -e parle choisisse rende


... que tu -es parles choisisses rendes


... qu il/elle/on -e parle choisisse rende


... que nous -ions parlions choisissions rendions


... que vous -iez parliez choisissiez rendiez


... qu ils/elles -ent parlent choisissent rendent


Note that -IR verbs like sortir and partir and -RE verbs like mettre which are irregular in the present tense are regular in the subjunctive.


partir mettre


... que je parte mette


... que tu partes mettes


... qu il/elle/on parte mette


... que nous partions mettions


... que vous partiez mettiez


... qu ils/elles partent mettent


Subjonctif - French Subjunctive - Forms of Irregular Verbs


Many students of French find that the subjunctive is very difficult to master, but hopefully this lesson will simplify matters for you. In Part I, we learned how to form the present subjunctive of regular verbs. In Part II, we will learn the present subjunctive of irregular verbs. And finally in Part III, we will learn to use the subjunctive.


In working with the subjunctive, there are kinds of irregular verbs. The first is two-stem verbs, which follow the samer pattern as regular verbs for the singular conjugations (je, tu, il, elle, on) as well as the third person plural (ils/elles). However, they use the first person plural (nous) as the stem for their nous and vous forms of the subjunctive. Most irregular verbs follow this pattern


boire envoyer prendre venir


Nous... buvons envoyons prenons venons


stem buv envoy pren ven


Subjunctive endings


... que nous -ions buvions envoyions prenions venions


... que vous -iez buviez envoyiez preniez veniez





Ils... boivent envoient prennent viennent


stem boiv envoi prenn vienn


Subjunctive endings


... que je -e boive envoie prenne vienne


... que tu -es boives envoies prennes viennes


... qu il/elle/on -e boive envoie prenne vienne


... qu ils/elles -ent boivent envoient prennent viennent


Other verbs which follow this two-stem rule are appeler, croire, devoir, jeter, mourir, payer, pr�f�rez, recevoir, and voir.


The second category is verbs which have irregular stems but which still use the same endings. This is the complete list


aller faire pouvoir savoir vouloir


... que je (j) aille fasse puisse sache veuille


... que tu ailles fasses puisses saches veuilles


... qu il/elle/on aille fasse puisse sache veuille


... que nous allions fassions puissions sachions voulions


... que vous alliez fassiez puissiez sachiez vouliez


... qu ils/elles aillent fassent puissent sachent veuillent


Note that aller and vouloir are two-stem verbs


The third type of irregular verb in the subjunctive is verbs with two stems and irregular endings. This is, of course, avoir and être.


avoir être


... que je (j) aie sois


... que tu aies sois


... qu il/elle/on ait soit


... que nous ayons soyons


... que vous ayez soyez


... qu ils / elles aient soient





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