Friday, June 17, 2011

What Affects the Rate of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate?

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PLANNING


For this experiment I am going to test how temperature affects the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. There were many variables that I could have chosen such as


Factors


Surface Area This would have meant changing the area of the calcium carbonate by grinding it up into smaller pieces. E.g. from a lump, to chips, to powder. This would mean that there would be more surface area meaning a higher rate of reaction because there is a higher area of contact between the reactants. The acid can get to all the calcium carbonate quicker.


Write your What Affects the Rate of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate? research paper


Concentration This would have meant changing the concentration of the acid from 1 mole, to 1.5 mole, to mole etc. This would increase the rate of reaction because there would be more acid in the experiment in relation to chalk, no matter what volume was in the beaker.


Temperature This meant changing the temperature of the acid. If the temperature is increased, then the average speed of any one particle will increase. This will then mean that there will be more collisions between particles causing the rate of the reaction to increase.


What We Chose


I could have chosen any factor to test whether certain variables affected the rate of reaction but thought that changing the temperature would change the rate of reaction the most and would be a successful experiment. It would also be easy to measure the amount of gas given off and also the temperature of the acid.


Safety


This experiment would have been very dangerous to perform without necessary safety precautions. There was concentrated hydrochloric acid, Bunsen burners and glass in the lab, which meant that safety glasses were to be worn. Precautions were also taken when lighting the Bunsen burner and handling hot objects. Hair was to be tied back and jumpers (preferably) taken off.


Fair Test


To make this a fair test, I will have to


· Make sure that there is the same amount of hydrochloric acid in the test tube in every experiment.


· Make sure that the hydrochloric acid is the concentration each time (1 mole).


· Make sure that I have the same amount of calcium chloride in each experiment.


· Make sure that the temperature of the acid is correct, and not still rising or dropping when I put the sodium chloride in.


· Make sure that the stopwatch is correctly activated at the right time when the calcium chloride goes into the hydrochloric acid.


· Have exactly the same amount of water in the measuring cylinder so that the water displacement reading from the carbon dioxide was correct.


· Get the calcium chloride in the acid as quick as possible, and in the same time so that the reaction took place in the same time frame.


Prediction


I think that there will be an increase in the rate of reaction when the temperature is increased. This would be due to the particles colliding into each other more, causing the reaction to speed up. When the temperature is at room temperature it will be fairly slow at reacting and when we get to our highest temperature (40 degrees centigrade), it will be much faster and violent.


Equipment


The following is a list of the equipment that we used in this experiment


· 0cm uni-molar hydrochloric acid (HCL), although this was multiplied 15 times because we did 15 experiments.


· 1-gram calcium carbonate (CaCO) powder, although this was multiplied 15 times because we did 15 experiments.


· 1 Bunsen burner


· 1 Tripod


· 1 Gauze


· 1 Heatproof mat


· Gas


· 1 Test tube with delivery tube attached. This is where the reaction will take place. The delivery tube will be a tube that goes into the measuring cylinder in order for the carbon dioxide to be released and displace the water.


· Bung in order to trap the air in the test tube and make it flow down the delivery tube.


· 1 Thermometer to measure the temperature of the water in which the acid was placed.


· Water to put the test tube with acid in when heating the acid up.


· 1 Measuring Cylinder (50ml) to give us a reading of how much CO gas was given off, after displacement of the water.


· 1 Stopwatch to measure how long the carbon dioxide from the reaction took to displace 100 ml of water


· Matches


· 1 Weighing Boat to measure how much CaCO we were using.


· 1 Beaker to put the water in when heating up the acid.


· 1 Tub of water to put the measuring cylinder in when it is full of water.


· Safety glasses in order to give safety.


What am I measuring?


I am going to try and measure the carbon dioxide (CO) given off from the reaction of calcium chloride and hydrochloric acid. It will go out of the test tube, down the delivery tube and into the water of the measuring cylinder. The carbon dioxide will then displace the water and give us an accurate reading of how much CO was given off.





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