Tuesday, June 14, 2011

The Peace of Utrecht

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The Peace of Utrecht was a series of treaties that concluded the War of the Spanish Succession. It put an end to French expansion and signaled the rise of the British Empire. By the treaty between England and France on April 11, 171, Louis XIV recognized the English succession as established in the house of Hanover and confirmed the renunciation of the claims to the French throne of Louiss grandson, Philip V of Spain. The French fortifications of Dunkirk were to be razed and the harbor filled up, and the Hudson Bay territory, Acadia, St. Kitts, and Newfoundland were ceded to England. By a commercial treaty England and France granted each other most-favored-nation treatment. By a treaty with the Netherlands also on April 11, 171, France agreed to surrender to Austria the Spanish Netherlands still in French hands; these were to be held in trust by the Netherlands until the conclusion of a treaty between the Netherlands and the Holy Roman emperor. A commercial treaty between France and the Netherlands was also signed. France furthermore restored Savoy and Nice to Victor Amadeus II, recognizing him as king of Savoy. France also signed a treaty with Portugal and one with Prussia confirming the kingship of the Prussian rulers. The Anglo-Spanish treaty on July 1, 171 confirmed the clauses of the Anglo-French treaties relating to the English and French successions. Spain ceded Gibraltar and Minorca to Great Britain and ceded Sicily to Savoy. Britain and Spain signed the Asiento, an agreement giving Britain the sole right to the slave trade with Spanish America. The Treaty of Rastatt (March 7, 1714) between Louis XIV and Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI and the Treaty of Baden (September 7, 1714), restored the right bank of the Rhine to the empire and confirmed Austria in possession of the formerly Spanish Netherlands, of Naples, and of Milan. The Third Barrier Treaty (November 15, 1715) regulated trade relations between the Dutch and Austrian Netherlands.


The Peace of Utrecht in 171 brought perpetual struggles on the European continent to a temporary end, and inaugurated a generation of tranquil respite. During this era, the economies of the British colonies in North America flourished, as they were drawn more integrally into a burgeoning Atlantic system of triangular trade. Simultaneously, prosperity fostered ever-increasing exposure to British manufactured goods and culture, prompting colonial society to grow more Anglicized. Colonists on the edge of the American wilderness came to view themselves as British subjects abroad, heirs to the motherland’s civilized institutions and beneficiaries of attendant rights and privileges. The British Government’s milder approach to imperial economic policies during this era supported the process of Anglicization. At the same time, such salutary neglect encouraged the maturation of colonial political systems and the concomitant autonomy of colonial legislatures, furthering trends that had begun in earnest in the wake of the Glorious Revolution. As colonial societies expanded and matured, colonists expected the British home government to uphold, or at least not interfere with, the prosperity and autonomy they enjoyed. When transitions in British external affairs and internal politics inspired a fundamental reorientation of imperial policies, the colonies resisted changes they viewed as detrimental to their interests.


Identify the following


League of Augsburg was the defensive alliance formed in 1686 by Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I with various German states, including Bavaria and the Palatinate, and with Sweden and Spain so far as their German interests were concerned. It was an acknowledgment of a community of German feeling against French expansion. The war that broke out after the French attack on the Palatinate in October in 1688, is sometimes designated the War of the League of Augsburg. In 168 a new coalition against the French, the Grand Alliance, was formed by Austria, England, and the Netherlands. Savoy and Spain later joined the Alliance, and the war of 1688 - 167 is more known as the War of the Grand Alliance.


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War of Spanish Succession 1701 � 1714 it was the last of the general European wars caused by the efforts of King Louis XIV to extend French power. The War of Spanish Succession was fought by the Grand Alliance against France, Spain and small groups of Italy and Germany. The war was fought over the succession of Philip, Duke of Anjou, and the grandson of King Louis XIV of France to the Spanish crown. The War of Spanish Succession started when Austria invaded Italy. There were many battles after the first invasion. An Anglo-Dutch-German army defeated France in the Netherlands. In 1704, the Grand Alliance triumphed over a French-Bavarian army. That forced the French back to the German States. The French were forced to withdraw from the Netherlands, and were driven out from Italy in 1706. In 1707, an Anglo-Portuguese army invaded Spain. They were routed of the Battle of Almansa. In 1708, King Louis XIV of France sued the Grand Alliance for Peace. Negotiations broke down when France refused to join the Grand Alliance against his grandson. In 170, Grand Alliance forces defeated the French at Malpaquet, France. That was the bloodiest battle of the war. The War of Spanish Succession continued until the Treaty of Utrecht was signed. The war ended one year after the Treaty came into place.


Grand Alliance of 1701 The Grand Alliance was combination of many countries. The main ones were England, the Netherlands, Denmark, Austria, and Portugal. It was first formed against King Louis XIV of France, in the 1680s. The first coalition was in 168. Its aim was to enforce the provisions of the Peace of Westphalia, and the Peace of the Pyrenees. The second coalition (1701) was formed to fight in the War of Spanish Succession.


pistol pointed at the heart of England Britain was now in a power in the Mediterranean In Belgium, the “pistol pointed at the heart of England” , was in the innocuous hands of the Austrians.


asiento Britain and Spain signed the Asiento, an agreement giving Britain the sole right to the slave trade with Spanish America. It granted lucrative privilege of providing Spanish America with Spanish slaves. Much of the wealth of Bristol and Liverpool in the next few decades was to be built upon the slave trade. It also provided opportunities for illicit trade in nonhuman cargoes.


Homework # The transformation of Eastern Europe-1648-1740 READ 10-1


Discussion question Explain the designation Republic for Poland.


The Republic of Poland ran about a thousand miles eastward from the Holy Roman Empire. This seventeenth century community was very unique for its time. It was called the Republic Of Poland because its king was elected. Poland took great pride in their elected king. Another reason for the name republic was that the political classes also took pride in their constitutional liberties. Its vast size was one cause for its internal peculiarities. No administrative system could have kept up with the large expansion of its frontiers. A large amount of liberties had been left to distant lords.The Polish State was a more recent and tangible creation than the Holy Roman Empire. The two main parts of Poland were joined by a union of their crowns. The two peoples lived separately under their own laws, language, and religion. The official language was Latin and the leading religion was Roman Catholic. Poland never established an effective constitution or parliamentary government. It also had the largest aristocracy of any other country in Europe, making up eight percent of the population. Poland was called the possessor of an early form of democracy.


Identify the following


Capitulations is surrender upon specific terms. Under Western influence the Turks learned to resent the “capitulations” as impairments of their own sovereignty. The Turkish rule was oppressive, and the “terrible Turk” was with reason the nightmare of eastern Europe.


Yiddish A language, with origins developed from the Middle High German. The latter spokes Yiddish, derived from German, and were very numerous because a king of Poland in the later Middle ages had welcomed Jewish refugees fleeing from Germany. These Jews in Germany spoke Yiddish.


szlachta The Polish aristocracy made up of eight percent of the population, a far higher proportion than the aristocracy of any country of west Europe. The old Polish Kingdom has sometimes been considered, especially by later Polish nationalists, as the possessor of an early form of democracy.


Janissaries A member of an elite force of Turkish infantry. It was made up of war captives and Christian youths pressed into service; all the recruits were converted to Islam and trained under the strictest discipline. Sultan Murad I originally organized it. The Janissaries gained great power in the Ottoman Empire. By 1600, Muslims had begun to enter the corps, largely through bribery, and in the 17th century membership in the corps became largely hereditary, while the drafting of Christians gradually ceased.


power vacuum The huge expanse comprised under the name of Poland was a power vacuum, an area of low political pressure; and as centers of high pressures developed, notably around Berlin and Moscow, the push against the polish frontiers became steadily stronger. It was facilitated by the centrifugal habits of the Poles themselves.


Homework #4 1648-1740 READ 1-6


Discussion question Explain the obstacles to a Habsburg Austrian Empire.


The Austrian Hapsburg dynasty in the seventeenth century kept the hereditary provinces together. The provinces were Upper and Lower Austria, with the adjoining Tyrol, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola. The second was the kingdom of Bohemia-Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia joined under the crown of St. Wenceslas. And the third was the kingdom Hungary-Hungary, Transylvania, and Croatia joined under the crown of St. Stephen. While the Thirty Years War was going on the dynasty rooted Protestantism and feudal rebelliousness out of Austria and the hereditary provinces. They also recaptured and re-Catholicized Bohemia. Hungary was also captured years later. In 166 a struggle began between the armies of Vienna and Constantinople when the Turkish armies started moving up the Danube. The Hapsburgs were able to gain the help of Prince Edward if Savoy. In 167 he won the Battle of Zenta forcing the Turks out of Hungary. The Hapsburgs entered the Spanish Succession to win the Spanish crown. The Austrian archduke campaigned in Spain for many years with the help of the English. They had to settle with the annexation of the old Spanish Netherlands. The Austrians were never before been so successful.


Identify the following


Prince Francis Rakoczy Led the rebellion against the Hapsburgs in 170. He received help from Louis XIV but was crushed by 1711 and spent the rest of his life in France and Turkey.





Pragmatic Sanction After the reconquest of Hungary the king-archduke, Charles VI devised a form of insurance to guarantee an undivided succession. This was a document called the pragmatic sanction and was first issued in 171





Maria Theresa The only child of Charles VI causing the direct male line of the Austrian Hapsburgs, as of the Spanish a few years before. On the death of Charles Albert of Bavaria, the imperial title was bestowed on Archduchess Maria Theresas husband, Francis, grand duke of Tuscany and former duke of Lorraine, who became Francis I. Maria Theresa inaugurated the bureaucratic centralization that was carried forward by her son Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II.





Crown of St. Stephen hereditary possession of the Hapsburgs, it was the jointness of the Kingdom of Hungary. This kingdom consisted of Hungary, Transylvania, and Croatia.


Homework #5 1648-1740 READ 6-4


Discussion question Describe the rise of Prussian military power and compare it to the militaries of other continental powers.


Prussias preoccupation with its army was unquestionable. The army arose from the horrors that came about through the Thirty Years War. The unique thing about the Prussian army was the size and resources on which the army was based. In order to maintain the army the government had to plan and direct the life of the country. The Prussian army developed a life of its own. It was almost independent of the life of the state; older than the Prussian state. The first great all Prussian institution was in 1657. The battle consisted of soldiers from Cleves, Brandenburg, and ducal Prussia. The civilian government later developed to meet the needs of the army. In the future the army proved to be stronger than the state. Like the armies of other countries the attention paid to the Prussian army was much like the attention given to the Bourbons, Hapsburgs, Swedes, Russians, Turks, and growing British navy. Prussia was also not the originator of the standing army. The standing army is kept active in times of peace and always prepared for war. They also imitated Louis XIV in establishing these standing armies to promote foreign ambitions and keep the armed forces out of the hands of the nobles and military adventurers, and under control of the state.


Identify the following


Militarism The policy of constantly building up armaments and the armed forces. Prussia became famous for its “militarism,” which may be said to exist when militarism needs and military values permeate all other spheres of life. Through its influence on Germany over a period of two centuries it played a momentous part in the modern world.


Brandenburg The former state of East Germany on the northern plain east of the Elbe. It represented a Medieval conquest bt the German-speaking peoples.


Junkers A member of the landed gentry in Eastern Germany. The Junkers were a class noted for their militarism and kept their estates in tact in Eastern Prussia until the 1th century. These landed aristocrats were brought into military and state service and in turn were left free to enserf their peasants.


Frederick William I King of Prussia from 171-1740. He was the son and successor of Frederick I. He continued the administrative reforms and the process of centralization begun by Frederick William, the Great Elector, creating a strong, absolutist state. He practiced rigid economy, and at his death there was a large surplus in the treasury. The Prussian army was made an efficient instrument of war. He built up one of the most powerful armies in Europe. He was a militarist and a despot. He raised the Prussian army to 8,000 men. By the Treaty of Stockholm he received most of Pomerania from Sweden.


Homework #6 4-45


Discussion question Describe the steps taken by Peter the Great to westernize Russia.


Since he was a child Peter had mixed with Westerners at Russias only port, Archangel. He spent over a year in Western Europe, especially Holland and England. During his visit he was extremely impressed with the backwardness of his country.


He talked with political and business leaders on ways to introduce Western organization and technology into Russia. He visited workshops, mines, commercial offices, art galleries, hospitals, and forts. On his visits to Europe he recruited almost 1,00 experts for service in Russia.


Peter developed a new stronger army and built a new city. He named this city was named St. Petersburg after himself and his patron saint. At the head of the Gulf of Finland Peter established the offices of government, required noblemen to build town houses, and gave favorable terms to foreign merchants and craftsmen to settle. Peter meant to make St. Petersburg a symbol of the new Russia. St. Petersburg became the capitol of Russia until the Revolution of 117, and was one of Northern Europes leading cities.


Due to all these changes taxes were imposed on heads, as poll taxes; on land; on inns, mills, hats cellars, and coffins; on the right to marry, sell meat, wear a beard, or be an Old Believer. Peter adopted the mercantilist policies set by Colbert in France, encouraged exports, built a fleet on the Baltic, and developed mining, metallurgy, and textiles.


Identify the following


Duma Elective council in the lower house of the legislature. Established by czarist decree in 105 and overthrown by the Stephen


Raza Led a huge up rising in 1667. He gathered a host of fugitive serfs, Cossacks, taking refuge adventures, outfitted a fleet on the Caspian Sea, plundered Russian vessels, defeated a Persian squadron, and invaded Persia itself.


St. Petersburg Second largest city and largest seaport of Russia at the head of the Gulf of Finland.Bolsheviks in 117.


Romanovs The Russian ruling dynasty from the accession in 161 of Michael until the enforced abdication in 117 of Nicholas II.





Homework #7


Discussion question Describe the effects of the partitions of Poland.


In 177 the opportunity of a partition of Poland arose due to a war between Russia and Turkey. This threw the whole situation in Eastern Europe into question. The Turkish Empire was becoming weak. The Russian victories were so overwhelming that the Austrians and Prussians feared for the balance of power in that part of Europe. The Prussians came forward with a proposal. This proposal would prevent an Austro-Russian war and preserve the balance of power in Eastern Europe by leaving the Ottoman Empire in tact, while having all three powers annex territory from Poland. All three powers agreed on this proposal.


Poland was sacrificed by the partition of 177 and its outer territories were cut away. The second partition was carried out by Catherine the Great, the tsarina of Russia, through an agreement with Prussia. In 174 Thaddeus Koscuisko led a revolutionary attempt, including the abolition of serfdom. His revolution was crushed in the counterrevolution when the Russian and Prussian armies invaded Poland again. Koscuisko was defeated. In the third partition Poland was divided between Russia and Austria. Poland as a political power no longer existed.


Identify the following


Catherine II Tsarina of Russia from 176-176. She preferred a Poland in which she could intervene at will.


King Stanislas Poniatowski He began his reign as a prot�g� of the Russian empress. One of the members of a reform party that gathered strength during the Four Years Diet which began in 1788.


Thaddeus Koscuisko He led the revolutionary attempt against the second partition, which included the abolition of serfdom.


Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji The Russians ended the war with Turkey and withdrew their armies. The treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji, a village in Romania, the sultan renounced his sovereignty over the Black Sea Tartars, admitted Russian Shipping to the Black Sea and the Straits, and recognized the Russian government as the protector of Christian interests in Constantinople.





Homework #8


Discussion question Compare elite and popular cultures in Europe during the late 17th and early 18th centuries.


The wealth and knowledge that was accumulated was not evenly distributed throughout the different classes. There were always differences between the classes with many levels between the extremes. But as the seventeenth century turned into the eighteenth century the distinctions between the elite and popular classes became more obvious.


The elite are the minority with a given range of interests. Elitists are not only of wealth but also of social position and power. There were elitists of fashion, patronage and connoisseurship in the arts, of the artists themselves. There were also elitists of education, of special training in medicine and law, and of discovery and accomplishment in technology and the sciences. The people whom belonged to the elite culture were able to share at will with the popular culture. They were able to do this by attending public meetings, talking with their servants. But the elite class were only able to do this. The people belonging to the popular class were not able to join in the elite class without transforming themselves through education, or marriage, which only could occur in special cases.


The main difference was language. The popular class used a local language varying from one place to another. There was a distinctive accent full of word that had become obsolete in other places or that might not even be understood a few miles away. Their way of talking was now considered a dialect, a peasant language.


Identify the following


Alchemy A medieval chemical art whose principal objectives were able to find the panacea and to transmute base metals into gold.


CarnivalThe festivities in Catholic countries just before Lent and at mid-Lent.


the world turned upside down Men and women put on each others clothing, horses were made to move backward with their riders facing their tail, servants gave their masters orders, judges were put in the stocks, students disciplined their teachers, and husbands held the babies while the wives held the guns.


folklore The stories, sayings, local customs, songs, dances handed down from one generation to the next among the unsophisticated members of a nation.


necromancy The art of foretelling the future or magically achieving some purpose by communication with the spirits of the dead.


Homework #


Discussion question Describe the social consequences of new wealth in Western Europe.


The wealth of Western Europe was accumulated along the Atlantic seaboard of Europe. The natural resources of America, the skills of Asia, the gold and manpower of Africa all went into the growing number of trade in the world commerce. Europeans directed the movement supplied capital contributed technical and organizing abilities. European traders set growing numbers of Indians spinning cloth, Chinese to raising tea, Malays to gathering spices, and Africans caring for the sugarcane.


The money accumulated within the system of private property. The government was dependent on these private property owners because the government had no good sources of money except from loans and taxes. When people supported the government they did well when support was withdrawn the government collapsed.


The new wealth was widely spread. Living standards rose in Western Europe. This wealth was used to produce more wealth. The average classes gradually became more comfortable. And the lower class became worse than they had been. The families enriched by commerce especially the ones with daughters married into the old families who owned land. The merchants were soon prosperous. The two forms of property tended to merge. Through this commercial expansion there was an age of social stability.


Identify the following


domestic system


An estimated 4,50,000 persons engaged in manufactures in the British Isles, a figure that included women and children, and comprised almost half the entire population. These people were employed by merchants


Five Great Farms A way to reduce internal tariffs in a large part of Central France. It was one of the largest free-trade areas in Europe.


Calico Calico is inexpensive printed cotton cloth.





Plantation An estate especially in warm weather on which crops like sugarcane, cotton, and tea grow.


Homework #0


Discussion question Explain Britains financial superiority over France.


After the Peace of Utrecht England and France both met to discuss ways of dealing with their swollen government debt. Though France was much larger and wealthier than England and Holland they had been able to maximize their resources. They were able to do this through banking and credit. There was also a great demand for lending and borrowing money. People all over Western Europe were looking for enterprises to invest their money in.


There was a close tie between government finance and private enterprise. This was not unusual. In England a good deal of government debt was held by companies organized for that purpose. The government chartered companies and make it a monopoly. After the shares were bought by stockholders the government would receive a large amount of money from the company. The money was held by the Bank of England. The money made was used by the government by defraying the costs of war.


In France it was felt that a French central bank be established. The Mississippi Company was formed obtaining a monopoly with Louisiana. John Law ran the company. Under Law the company gained the French East India, China, Senegal, and African companies. The company proposed many dividends on their shares to eliminate debt in France. The shares were sold quickly. However people soon started to fear for their money. Many people began to unload their stocks. This left many people without their life savings and many ancestral estates.


Both countries lost a lot of money in these stocks. England recovered better than France did from this crisis France did not have an adequate banking system and people were afraid to put their money into land. The same fears were felt in England. The English government forbid any company to raise stock that was not authorized by them. In both countries the development of joint stocks would slow down for a century.


Identify the following


Jacobites They were the partisans of James III. He schemed to make himself king of England.


Bonnie Prince Charlie Also called the Young Pretender. He landed in Scotland and proclaimed rebellion.


John Law A Scottish financier and had a remarkable mathematical system in gambling cards. He felt the need for the French central bank and founded the Mississippi Company.


Bubble Act Passed by Parliament forbidding all companies except those specifically chartered by the government to raise capital by the sale of stocks.


Robert Walpole His policy was to keep peace abroad and conciliate all interests at home. he also saved the South Sea Company, the East India Company, and the bank.


Homework #1 7-85


Discussion question Explain the causes and effects of the reversal of alliances.


Identify the following


Frederick the Great


Maria Theresa


German dualism


Count Kaunitz


Treaty of Paris was signed by Great Britain, France, and Spain in February 10, 176. Together with the treaty of Hubertusburg, it terminated the Seven Years War.


Homework #


Reading VII. The Scientific View of the World. . Prophets of a Scientific Civilization Bacon and Descartes, pp. 86-.


Discussion question Describe the effects of the Scientific Revolution.


Identify the following


Instauratio Magna


induction


cogito ergo sum


Discourse on Method


Homework #


Reading VII. The Scientific View of the World. . The Road to Newton The Law of Universal Gravitation, pp. -00.


Discussion question Describe and explain the achievement of Newton.


Identify the following


Vesalius


Harvey


calculus


Newcomen





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