Friday, June 17, 2011

epithelial tissue

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Epithelial tissue is the basic tissue which covers surface areas the spaces,

surfaces and the cavities of the body. There are three types of epithelial tissues Covering

and lining, Glandular, Sensory The covering and lining epithelia are associated with skin,

the gastro-intestinal tract, the respiratory tract, etc. The function of these cells varies

Custom Essays on epithelial tissue

according to the location and morphology the skin protects, the glands secrete, the

gastro-intestinal tract absorbs, the alveoli of the lungs allow diffusion of gases. Some

epithelial cells have motile processes on their surfaces called cilia. These create wave-

like activity on the cell surface and help with surface transport across the epithelium. The

epithelium acts as the interface between the outside world and the rest of the body.

Therefore, the epithelium must act as a permeability barrier. They are contiguous, the

cells are attached to one another. The cells rest on an extracellular matrix which they

produce, called the basement membrane at arrows. The basement membrane consists of

the basal lamina produced by epithelial cells, and a more fibrous reticular layer which is

below the basal lamina. The fact that one part of the layer is exposed to the lumen or

outside world, and the other side is attached to the basement membrane gives each cell or

layer specific polarity the apical side is the side towards the lumen, the basal side is the

side closest to the basement membrane In many epithelial cells, the nuclei are somewhat

basal. Some organelles, such as the Golgi apparatus, are typically supranuclear, they are

between the nucleus and the cell apex. Epithelia are avascular. This means that blood

vessels do not penetrate up between these cells, as they do in connective tissue and

muscle cells. Epithelia are unlike muscle and connective tissue in that they can be derived

from any of the three embryologic germ layers endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm. A major

cytoskeletal component of epithelial tissue is the intermediate filament called keratin.

This differentiates epithelial cells from other cells types ,intermediate filaments of

connective tissue are called vimentin and intermediate filaments of muscle cells are

called desmin.

The shapes are squamous are very flat cells cuboidal- taller than squamous cells,

all four sides approximately equal, andcolumnar are cell length is greater than cell

width.The Number of Layers of cells in the epithelium are; simple are a single layer of

cells; all cells sit on the basement membrane. Stratified areseveral cells stacked upon one

another; not all cells touch the basement membrane. The shape of the apical stratum

determines the shape designation of the epithelium. Pseudostratified is a simple

epithelium, but gives the illusion of being stratified. All cells do sit on the basement

membrane, his is not always visually apparent because the nuclei are at various levels.

Surface Specializations, these classifications are used in combination to describe a

particular type of epithelium. For example, the epithelium lining the trachea is ciliated

pseudostratified columnar epithelium, which describes the shape of the cells, the number

of cell layers, and the surface specializations.

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