Tuesday, May 31, 2011

The Man Who Was Almost a Man

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After reading The Man Who Was Almost a Man, I could


almost visualize this 17 year old boy struggling for his


identity to be recognized. Based on my interpretation


and understanding of the story, I tend to agree with the


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Reader Response most, because in the beginning of the


story, it is not clear that Dave is actually an African


American based on the language he used until later in


the piece. The dialect the story was written in was a


bit difficult to understand in the beginning but I ended


up enjoying it a great deal. In the story Dave is


portrayed as a young boy trying to become a man by


purchasing a gun. He uses bad tactics in order to


accomplish his task, like lying to his mother. While I


do not agree with him doing that; I am sure that even


today things like this are done. One thing I did not


understand in the story is for the life of me, why


didnt his mother insist the day he purchased the gun


that he give it to her immediately and not listen to his


excuses. Did she except his excuses because of the


times they were living in and she had no reason not to


trust him? This approach seems to be the clearer.


Furthermore, the story seems to be written on a straight


line approach not requiring you to go back and forth.


The critical approach, Aristotelian Formalism, seems to


agree with this. The story starts out by telling you


about Dave, providing information through some type of


narration about his feelings and what he is thinking.


It starts at the beginning, then it gives you the high


points about Dave actually purchasing the gun and


accidentally shooting and killing the mule. Next, you


can almost identify with Dave when everyone is making


fun of him for whatever their reasons. He certainly has


my sympathy. And then theres the end where he runs


away on the train. While I thing that under the same


circumstances I would not run away, no one ever knows


for sure until you walk in the same shoes. After all


Dave was only 17 and thought that everyone, including


his mom, had basically wronged him.


Also, in considering the new criticism, I agree with


some of the thoughts. For instance, Dave does have the


same degree of thought process throughout the story. He


accidentally shoots and kills the mule and he truly


feels bad about it; but, he doesnt take time and think,


he is so consumed with trying to let everyone know that


he is a man now because he can shoot.


I dont have anything to enter.


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Monday, May 30, 2011

Men

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Three strong believers in the kids guilt emerge. First among them is Lee J. Cobb as an arrogant blowhard who believes that anyone who shows mercy to a kid like this is soft in the head and is shirking his duties as a juror and a member of society. Ed Begley (the older Ed Begley, not the goofball with the electric car) plays a reactionary, racist, us-and-them philosopher who refuses to believe that there is anything to a decision like this beyond looking at the kid and sizing him up and knowing hes rotten to the core. Finally, E.G. Marshall is a methodical, somewhat cynical guy whose careful review of the evidence convinces him that guilt beyond a reasonable doubt has genuinely been proved.


The more moderate jurors are the territory over which Fonda and these men originally argue. Joseph Sweeney is a thin elderly man who at least shares Fondas concern that a discussion is appropriate before a death sentence is handed down. Klugman is a young (really...wait till you see him) kid who was himself raised as a street kid. Warden is an impatient clown who just wants to get out and get to a ball game. Webber is a smooth-talking but easily swayed young airhead. George Voskovec is a friendly businessman who has clearly immigrated relatively recently from somewhere, and who has the perfect response to Begleys complaint about the inability of foreigners to speak good English. Edward Binns is a young tough guy. John Fiedler is a bright, eager young man who remembers a movie title at an important moment. Martin Balsam rounds out the cast as the frustrated foreman of this fractured group. Its a fascinating group of men, and as the discussion begins, the script plays very delicately with the issue of guilt and innocence, as well as with the job of a juror.


What Fonda sets out to do at first is demonstrate that there is more to the case than meets the eye, or at least there could be. He isnt convinced that the kids court-appointed lawyer was exactly exerting himself on the kids behalf, so Fonda almost takes on the role of the defense attorney, suggesting ways that the prosecutions evidence can be explained, and ways that it even contradicts itself. Interestingly, many of the men call on their personal experiences during the deliberations, with one explaining how old men feel about being alone and unimportant, another expounding on the mechanics of knife-fighting, and another explaining that no one wears eyeglasses to bed.


Let us now give thanks


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What is so wonderful about this movie is that the script is a marvelous balance of these men talking about the evidence and these men talking about each other and how the deliberations are going. Alliances are formed and break apart, heated debates lead to interesting revelations, and a couple of big moments (one of which involves the discovery that Fonda has done something that the jury instructions almost certainly would have told him not to do) provide suspense and surprise.


The acting is absolutely superb -- probably the most effective large ensemble cast I can remember seeing. There are quite literally no weak links, and its no coincidence that several of these actors (including Warden and Klugman) became significantly more famous after this movie than before. Most of all Fonda, who also produced, is a model of the Smart Leading Man, sort of in the Gregory Peck mold, and his conviction and growing passion for his cause is riveting.





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Sunday, May 29, 2011

john steinbeck

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Steinbeck invents the character of Candy, the disabled swamper of the farm, for protesting against the treatment of old people like him.


Candy is a very weak character, both physical and mental. His physical strength has gone because of his age and the loss of one of his hands. This made him less self-conscious and he does not confide to contradict other people, even if they are on the same social ranking level as himself.


One example for this behaviour is shown on page 4, when he talks to George who accuses him of listening. Candy knows that he cannot do anything against George and Lennie, so he just tells them what they want to hear (page 4, line A guy on a ranch donìt never listen nor he donìt ast no questions.) to stay out of trouble.


But the most important scene that shows the unjust treatment of this weak character is the discussion about his old dog. The dog is the only living thing Candy trusts and he is also very proud of him (page 5, line 8 He said proudly, `You wouldnìt think it to look at him now, but he was the best damn sheep dog I ever seen.ì). Candy would never think about killing him although the dog has outlived his usefulness.


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Carlson, another migrant worker, does not like the dog because it smells. The dog also does not mean anything to him and so, without talking to Candy first, he asks Slim, whose dog just had pups, if he could give one of them to Candy so that his old dog can be shot. This behaviour shows the reader that Carlson does not have any respect for Candy or the dog.


Carlson said thoughtfully, Well, looka here, Slim. I been thinkinì. That dog of Candyìs is so God damn old he canìt hardly walk. Stinks like hell, too. Everìtime he comes into the bunkhouse I can smell him for two, three days. Whyìnìt you get Candy to shoot his old dog and give him one of the pups to raise up? I can smell that dog a mile away. Got no teeth, damn near blind, canìt eat. Candy feeds him milk. He canìt chew nothing else. (page 4, lines 14-)


Of course Candy loves his dog and because the dog was so good once, Candy wants to take care of him until it dies naturally (page 61, line I donìt mind takinì care of him.). But Carlson asks him over and over why the dog cannot be shot. He also explains to him in detail how Candy should kill the dog (page 60, lines 7-10 `If you was to take him out and shoot him right in the back of his head right -ì he leaned over and pointed, `- right there, why heìd never know what hit him.).


Due to his weak character, there is no chance for Candy to escape or assert. The only argument he brings up against Carlson is that he has no gun (page 6, line 6 Candy said hopefully, `You ainìt got no gun.ì) - which is also wrong because Carlson has a Luger of which existence Candy does not know.


As he realizes that he cannot bring up any more arguments, the only thing he says to Carlson is Maybe tomorra. Leìs wait till tomorra. (page 6, line 10). When he notices that Carlson does not accept this, his last hope is in Slim, whose words are law (page 61, line 1 [...] for Slimìs opinions were law.), but Slim shares Carlsonìs opinion and does not say anything to Candy. Candy feels defeated and sadly accepts the death of his dog.


After killing Candyìs dog, the reader is shown another respectless action by Carlson He comes into the bunkhouse and does not look at Candy, but sits down on his bed to clean his gun (page 70, lines 15-0).


And finally, at the end of chapter four, we get the information that Candy knows of his situation and that he is not able to do anything against it. We see this in the dialog between him and Curleyìs wife, when he agrees to her statement


[...] she cried. Nobodyìd listen to you, anì you know it. Nobodyìd listen to you.


Candy subsided. No ... he agreed. Nobodyìd listen to us


(page 10, line 5 � page 104, line )


By showing us how weak, unsure and hopeless this character is, who does not even confide to say no to things he does not like, Steinbeck protests against this unfair treatment of old people. He wants to tell us that old people are, as all other human beings worthy of our attention and our respect (York Notes, page 5). So this is one important theme of protest of the novel.


. Protest against racism


Another theme of protest in this novel is the protest against racism.


Steinbeck created the character of Crooks, the stable buck, to show this injustice to blacks, which was quite normal at the time the action took place.


This seems to be also a very important theme for Steinbeck, as it is the first thing Lennie and George are confronted with when coming to the farm. Candy tells them at their arrival, that the boss is very angry of them because they have not arrived the day before, as they should have by contract. He remarks that the boss gave the stable buck hell (page 7, line 1-0) and after Georgeìs inquiry, Candy begins telling about their black stable buck, Crooks.


The statement Sure. Ya see the stable buckìs a nigger. (page 8, line ) shows that racism is normal for them. Of course not all characters in the story are racists, but they accept it and do not do anything against it. Examples for this are Candy, who also expresses in his talk that he likes Crooks just as the others (page 8, line 5 Yeah. Nice fella too.), and Slim, who knows that he is god-like to the others, but does his work even when Crooks offers doing it for him (page 66, lines 17-7).


But, as already said, these characters also accept racism


Yes sir. Jesus, we had fun. They let the nigger come in that night. Little skinner name of Smitty took after the nigger. Done pretty good, too. The guys wouldnìt let him use his feet, so the nigger got him. If he coulda used his feet, Smitty says he woulda killed the nigger. The guys said on account of the niggerìs got a crooked back, Smitty canìt use his feet.


(page 8, lines 16-)


Other information we get off the novel that should remind us how unfair this treatment of blacks is, is that the boss is a racist. When he is angry, the boss always gets mad and beats the black stable buck. Later in the novel, we hear someone (this might be the boss) screaming in the distance Where the hell is that God damn nigger? (page 40, line 7) which is used to remind us of this theme. Steinbeck wants to tell us that blacks are human beings as whites, and that it is wrong to treat them like animals.


This treatment is also criticised by Crooks himself, when he talks to Lennie about the prejudices the others have against him. Because they do not like blacks and do not want to play cards with Crooks, they treat him like an animal and tell him as the reason for the disacceptance that he is smelling (page 88, line 88 They say I stink.).


There is another key scene that is used by Steinbeck to protest against this. When Crooks talks to Curleyìs wife and tries to get rid of her, we are shown what power a white girl has over a black man. It would be easier for her bringing the death to Crooks than killing an animal. With only a few sentences, she destroys Crooks dignity, and with a few more she could have destroyed his life. This is shown in the following dialogue


Crooks stood up from his bunk and faced her. I had enough, he said coldly. You got no rights cominì in a colored manìs room. You got no rights messing around in here at all. [...]


She turned on him in scorn. Listen, Nigger, she said. you know what I can do to you if you open your trap?


Crooks stared hopelessly at her, and then he sat down on his bunk and drew into himself.


She closed on him. You know what I can do?


Crooks seemed to grow smaller, and he pressed himself against the wall. Yes, maìam. (page 10, line 6 � page 10, line )


Steinbeck wants to make the reader think about the problems of racism and prejudices. He created the character of Crooks to show that it is totally wrong to ignore these people just because they are coloured. Other than with Candy, Crooks is not very weak and he is also intelligent (because he reads books). He would really like to have a better relationship with the other ranch hands (he expresses this when he talks to Lennie about the card games), but it is not possible because they will not accept a coloured man to stay with them.


. Protest against loneliness


Loneliness is not only one of the subjects Steinbeck protests against, it is also one of the main themes of the novel. Nearly all characters suffer from it and so there are many scenes that show this. In this chapter of my work I will try to show which characters are used by Steinbeck to protest against this theme.


The best examples are the two main characters, George and Lennie. They travel together to fight against loneliness. This also seems to work, but there are several situations reminding us that they are still lonely.


We can call George a lonely man because Lennie always forgets things he is told and so George does not really have someone to talk to. In the first chapter of the book, we see that this also makes him angry. Ironically George says to Slim in a later part of the novel, that guys who travel alone get mean


I seen the guys that go around on the ranches alone. That ainìt no good. They donìt have no fun. After a long time they get mean. They get wantinì to fight all the time. (page 55, lines -1)


So this is one of the many parts of the book that is used to protest against loneliness.


Another scene where George directly talks about the problem of being alone is when he compares his and Lennieìs relationship with the other ranch hands. He believes that loneliness is no problem for them


Guys like us, that work on ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world. They got no fambly. They donìt belong no place. [...] They ainìt got nothing to look ahead to.


Lennie was delighted. Thatìs it � thatìs it. Now tell how it is with us.


George went on. With us it ainìt like that. We got a future. We got somebody to talk to that gives a damn about us. [...]


(page 0, lines -5)


But we get many hints that they are alone, like the others. Another example for this is that George seems to play with his cards the whole time he is in the bunkhouse. He does this because he has nothing else to do.


Loneliness also leads to the sad ending of the story. George leaves Lennie alone and does not have control over him. So loneliness kills Curleyìs wife and later Lennie.


To make clear that the reader understands the protest, Steinbeck also involved many other characters and shows protest through them. For example


Crooks is black and he is not accepted by the others (see chapter . of this work for more information about the theme of racism). He may not come into the bunkhouse and therefore stays most of the time alone in his own, isolated room. He expresses his dislike for this in the talk between him and Lennie in chapter four.


Like Crooks, also Candy does not receive enough respect from the other ranch hands. They do not like him as he is not very useful for them due to his high age. His suffering from loneliness is shown in chapter three after his dog has been killed. The dog was his only true companion on the ranch and his death made him sad and lonely. After he handed the dog to Carlson, the only information we get about Candy is that he stares at the ceiling. This action is his quiet protest against what the others have done to him (they made him being alone).


Another character who is lonely because of discrimination and protests against it is Curleyìs wife. She is the only female character introduced in the story, and seems to be the only woman on the ranch. Her loneliness is shown by her acting every time we see her, she is looking for her husband. She does not seem to have any hobbies or friends, so she comes into the bunkhouse hoping to find company there. But she is not accepted by the men � not only because of her sex, but also because she is the wife of the ranch ownerìs son.


Steinbeck lets her say the following sentences to Lennie and the others, with which she directly protests against loneliness


Well, I ainìt giving you no trouble. Think I donìt like to talk to somebody everì once in a while? Think I like to stick in that house alla time? (page , lines 10-1)


I get lonely, she said. You can talk to people, but I canìt talk to nobody but Curley. Else he gets mad. Howìd you like not to talk to anybody? (page 10, lines 6-8)


Whit also suffers from loneliness, but there is no direct protest in the corresponding scenes. We just see that he talks about unimportant things like a letter printed in a magazine that has been written by a former worker of the ranch. We do not get any special information from him, nor is he important to the story.


It might be possible that Steinbeck just wants to show the reader one of the other guys George talks about. However, the reader can figure out that Whit is a lonely person without a bright future.


Steinbeck involved so many characters to show clearly what the consequences of being alone could be. He wants the reader to notice and understand his protest so that they do not simply over-read it.


. Where there is no protest at all


In this part of my work, I will look at the different issues of the novel where there is no protest at all. This might sound unbelievable because we have already found so much protest, and there is certainly much more in the novel as the few points presented in section two of this work. But if you read the novel by looking at the way Steinbeck presents life, you are able to find some non-protesting themes where you normally would expect protest against.


.1 No protest against treatment of Lennie


Lennie Small, one of the two main characters of the novel, is not very bright. He always forgets what he is told and behaves like a kid. People like him need much love and need to be understood and accepted by the society.


Because Steinbeck gives this character such a position in the novel, we get much information about the way he acts and what the others think of him. We also feel sorry for him and see that most of the ranch hands do not do this because they do not realize his problem or do not know how to behave towards him.


The treatment of him seems sometimes fair and sometimes unfair, and there are several scenes worth mentioning here. They all show Lennie, the strong man with a kidìs heart, in different situations on the farm. We see that he is mostly helpless, but Steinbeck does not protest here in any way against wrong treatment of him. He just presents the behaviour of Lennie and the ranch hands to the reader.


A good example to start with is the relationship between Lennie and his best friend George, who takes care of him. George knows how Lennie thinks and what he feels because they know each other for a long time. He also likes him and does not want to lose him, because he hates travelling alone without having someone he could speak to (page 48, line 1 Itìs a lot nicer to go around with a guy you know). This is shown in several scenes of the novel.


But because Lennie gets them into trouble very often or because he does not understand his friend, George can also become angry and mean. One example for this is the discussion about the dead mouse in chapter one of the novel. George gets angry and mean. He takes the dead mouse from Lennie and throws it away.


As the mouse is the only thing Lennie wants to have, this action is not very fair towards him. But there is no protest shown. We only see that George realizes after a while how unfair he is and that he tries to be nice again because he does not want to lose Lennie as company, who offers leaving him (page 1, line 1 No � look! I was jusì foolinì, Lennie. ìCause I want you to stay with me.).


Another scene where we do not see any protest is in chapter three. George talks to Slim about the fun he had with Lennie (page 54, lines 7-5). We get the information that he treated him like an animal until he nearly killed him. Slim does not say a word against it. Maybe Steinbeck also wants to show, that George and Slim (who is described as being god-like in several parts of the novel) are only human and therefore not perfect.


We also do not see any protest from Slim when George proudly tells him how much power he has over Lennie.


George spoke proudly. Jusì tell Lennie what to do anì heìll do it if it donìt take no figuring. He canìt think of nothing to do himself, but he sure can take orders. (page 5, lines 4-6)


Although George knows that it is wrong to treat Lennie like an animal, he does this several times in the novel and there is no complaint. He also calls him a bastard all over the novel (e.g. on page 1, line 7 Poor bastard) and tells him several times how great his life could be without him.


I could get along so easy and so nice if I didnìt have you on my tail. I could live so easy and maybe have a girl. (page 11, line )


God aìmighty, if I was alone I could live so easy. I could go get a job anì work, anì no trouble. No mess at all, [...].


(page 16, lines 18-0)


We also see that several other characters do not fully accept him. Curleyìs wife for example calls him a sonny boy (page 10, line 6) and Crooks wants to see what power he has over Lennie and how far he could go. This is shown on page , when he wants Lennie to suppose that George does not come back. The sentence Crooks pressed forward some kind of private victory expresses that he wants to dominate Lennie. Maybe he does this because the other ranch hands treat him always like a lower-level human, and now he has found someone he can rule over.


Another part which shows that Crooks does not fully accept Lennie is the following. Crooks makes fun of Lennie and tells him what he is thinking about him. Again, Crooks is very direct and we do not see any protest.


Crooks laughed again. A guy can talk to you anì be sure you wonìt go blabbinì. Couple of weeks anì them pupsìll be all right. George knows what heìs about. Jusì talks, anì you donìt understand nothing (page 1, lines 14-17)


But it seems as if there is another character, next to Slim and George, who understands a little bit how people like Lennie should be treated. This is Candy. We see that he tries to defend Lennie against Curleyìs wifeìs attack.


Candy broke in. You let this guy alone. Donìt you do no messing arounì with him. Iìm gonna tell George what you says. George wonìt have you messinì with Lennie. (page 10, lines 16-1)


But as the other characters, Candy can be mean and egoistic too. Maybe he also only tries to defend Lennie, because he wants to defend their dream of own land.


However, after the dead body of Curleyìs wife has been found, Steinbeck shows us the real character of Candy, or at least an attitude which we did not expect. We see how egoistic Candy can be and that he does not care about what happens to Lennie.


[...] and his anger grew into words. You God damn tramp, he said viciously. You done it, diìnìt you? I sìpose youìre glad. Everìbody knowed youìd mess things up. You wasnìt no good. You ainìt no good now, you lousy tart. (page 10, lines 1-4)


When the other characters arrive in the barn to see what happened, they only think about killing Lennie for what he has done. They also do not care about his child-like mind. The hunt for a man seems to be an adventure for them, because they all want to take part of it. None of them respects life and says anything against Curleyìs plan.


[Curley] worked himself into a fury. Iìm gonna get him. Iìm going for my shotgun. Iìll kill the big son-of-a-bitch myself [...] (page 11, lines 6-)


Carlson said, Iìll get my Luger, and he ran out too.


(page 11, line 10).


The only character who could have prevented Curley and the others from shooting Lennie is Slim. George knows this and talks to him, but Slim says that it would not be better for Lennie being locked up in a prison.


Again we see that Slim accepts the dead. He said nothing against the killing of Candyìs dog and now he does not keep the others from shooting Lennie. As Crooks, also George accepts Slimìs opinion and does not express any more protest.


I guess we gotta get ìim, Slim repeated.


George stepped close. Couldnì we maybe bring him in anì theyìll lock him up? Heìs nuts, Slim. He never done this to be mean.


Slim nodded. We might, he said. If we could keep Curley in, we might. But Curleyìs gonna want to shoot ìim. Curleyìs still mad about his hand. Anì sìpose they lock him up anì strap him down nd put him in a cage. That ainìt no good, George.


I know, said George, I know. (page 11, line 5 till page 1, line5)


As there is no protest against this wrong treatment of Lennie, we could call this theme a presentation. Steinbeck shows us two days of Lennieìs life. He shows how other ranch hands treat him, sometimes good and sometimes bad. We see that many of them are egoistic in general and also do not realize that inside Lennieìs strong body there is a child.


.. No complaint against the ranch owner


Another theme the reader might expect protest against is the behaviour of the ranch owner. Although he is a racist, very aggressive and way to proud of himself, the farm hands do not criticise him and there is no complaint shown.


His racist attitude is expressed by the way he treats Crooks, the black stable buck. Every time the boss is angry (which seems to be very often), he gets mad and beats him (page 7, line 1-0 Anì he give the stable buck hell, too.). But there is no protest against this behaviour, just acceptance.


The boss also wants to make it plain that he is on a higher social level, that he is a better human being than the ranch hands. This is shown by his outfit and the way he acts towards the others. Steinbeck writes on page (lines -10), that he wears high-heeled boots and spurs to show that he is not one of the ranch workers. He also wants to make himself look important by carrying a book and a pencil with him. This makes him appear businessman-like.


The only comments we get about the boss are from Candy and George. Candy says that the boss is a nice fella (page 8, line 10 and also on page 4, line 15) although he knows his strange character and attitudes (since he is for a long time on that ranch). George seems to like the boss, too, and also does not criticise him. He says to Candy that he likes the boss pretty good and that he seems awright (page 4, line 14).


While reading this book, which contains so much protest, we also expect to get more information





Please note that this sample paper on john steinbeck is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on john steinbeck, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on john steinbeck will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Saturday, May 28, 2011

Childhood vs adulthood catcher in the rye

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Question Think about Holden’s vision of the nature of childhood and adulthood. Are the two realms as separate as Holden believes them to be? Where does he fit in?





The novel Catcher In The Rye is about a teenage boy’s growth into maturity. The theme of the story is the painfulness of growing up and in it Holden’s goal is to resist the process of maturing. He fears change and is overwhelmed by complexity, and because of this he invents two fantasy worlds; one for childhood, and one for adulthood.


Holden believes that childhood is all about innocence, curiosity and honesty. Like his fantasy about the catcher in the rye, he imagines childhood as a field of rye in which children romp and play, and have no real worries or fears. Holden doesn’t want to leave this world because he feels comfortable and safe within it.


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Because he doesn’t want to leave childhood, Holden views adulthood as a world of superficiality and “phoniness”. He thinks adulthood is equivalent to death, like a fatal fall over the edge of the cliff, as portrayed in his catcher in the rye fantasy. In reality, adulthood scares and mystifies him.


The two worlds of childhood and adulthood actually aren’t as separate as Holden has made them out to be. His created understandings of the realms allow him to cut himself off from the rest of the world by criticizing others around him, especially adults. Holden is trapped between childhood and adulthood. He physically should be entering into adulthood, but mentally he is only a child. Holden’s sister Phoebe even seems more mature than her much older brother.


The novel Catcher In The Rye expresses a common aspect of human nature. Often when one doesn’t understand something they make up illusions or fantasies to help themselves cope with it, as Holden has done to help himself deal with the transition from childhood to adulthood.


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Friday, May 27, 2011

growth of retailing in indian markets

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A. INTRODUCTION


Due to the competitive environment of retailing, it is not important to just sell the products to the customers but over and above a retailer has to be able to provide something extra which directly and/or indirectly enhances the shopping experience of the customer. Today’s customer has the technology, the choice, and the inclination to construct personal assortments. Customers entering a retail store have a set of expectations and the store has to consistently exceed them, not just meet them. This can be achieved by creating an integrated shopping experience by understanding their shopping behavior. The “push” model of consumer marketing and interaction is being replaced with a “pull” model, in which consumers customise the purchasing space to meet their own needs.


B. TRADITIONAL RETAILING


Traditional retailing concepts considered retailing merely as a business, with choosing a product assortment that would possibly attract the largest group of customers and making the most profit possible out of it. Traditional retailing decisions were mostly judgmental, based on the understanding of the market trend only and not any kind of data analysis. Even today, this strategy is prevalent in rural India. The consumer was not feature conscious and they did not have a wide variety of choices. The buying decision was primarily based on price and availability of the product. People used to buy from local super markets or haats. Products were pushed to the consumer rather than being pulled by the consumers.


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C. MODERN RETAILING


The current century is characterized by the free flow of information and products. Consumers have become brand conscious. Increase in purchasing power and decrease in import tariff have led to the development of the market of costly imported goods. Not all of the small kirana shops can afford those goods. Departmental stores and organized retail chains are increasing. Over 50 of the fortune 500 companies and about 5 of Asian top 00 companies have entered the retailing market. The retailer’s strategy is no longer based on qualititative judgment. It should rather be backed up by analytical viewpoint.


D. RETAILING GROWTH FACTORS


There are several factors responsible for the growth of retailing in the Indian market. The parameters can be broadly classified into two main categories, namely, socio-economic and consumer psyche.


Socio-Economic Factors


Following socio-economic factors are crucial for the growth of organized retailing.


1. Buying Power The buying power can be emulated using the GNP per capita. According to Statistical Outline of India 001-0, the GNP Per Capita of India has increased to double in twenty years but the population has increased by 50% during the same period. Moreover, there is a wide gap in income distribution in the rural and the urban areas. While in the urban areas, dual income households are quite common, the rural areas are still characterized by one income member in a family of 5-6 members. Consequently, the disposable income and hence the purchasing power is more in the urban areas than in rural areas. The NCAER study released in 001 shows the following income distribution.


Table 1 NCAER Household Income Classification


Classification of Household


% age of population


in 001 % age of population


in 11


Very Rich


( More than INR ,60,000 ) 1.5 0.8


Consuming class


( INR 80000-,60,000 ) 5. 0.1


Climbers


( INR 40000-80000 ) 41. .7


Aspirants


( INR 8000-40000 ) 18.8 7.4


Destitutes


( Less Than INR 8000 ) 1.7 0.5


Source NCAER Study Released in 001


. FDI Regulations Foreign Ownership of a local retailer is limited to 4% but the foreign players are permitted to enter India through the route of licensing, franchising and technology alliances. It is imperative that growth of organized retailing is related with the entrance of the foreign retail giants in India. Marks and Spencer has entered India through the licensee route. Foodworld Supermarkets has a 514 stake distribution between RPG Group and the Dairy Farm International, Hong Kong.


. Space Constraint There is a shortage of space in Indian cities and the cost of space is also high. Compunded, there are some other considerations as detailed below.


a. Only Indians can own space in India.


b. Stamp Duties are significantly high ( 8% in Delhi ), increasing the cost.


c. City urban planning, in most of the cases, projected smaller commercial plots and hence it is difficult to get bigger plots suitable for setting up big retail stores.


The above facts explain why the Indian organized retail stores are backed up by the real estate groups, as for example, K Raheja Group in Shopper’sample Stop, Piramals for Crossroads etc.). Again, this also explains why organized retailing is comparatively more widespread in south, where the land cost is comparatively lower.


4. Taxation System Although VAT is going to be introduced in India, still complex taxation system still in operation in the various parts of the country make the management of supply chain in a large scale a difficult task.


5. High Tariffs In the post WTO Arena, the import tariffs have been reduced to a great extent. But still they are high enough to reduce the number of products available for Indian consumers to choose from.


6. Growth of Planned Township In the planned towns growing across the country, the market is not available very near to the house. People have actually travel a lot to reach the unorganized market and do the shopping. If the distance between the unorganized market and the departmental stores be same, people may actually go for departmental stores.


Consumer Psyche


1. Buying Pattern Buying pattern of the consumers guide the type of stores to be successful in that region. As for example, in US, consumers are habituated in bulk buying and there large departmental stores are a grand success. Whereas in Japan, the people are not habituated in bulk buying due to time and space constraint. Hence departmental stores are not very successful in Japan.


. Ownership of Cars Ownership of cars is an essential growth factor for the evolution of the organized retail market. People may turn up in the nearby departmental stores with their cars, buy bulk with significant price advantage and then go back.


The following population/vehicle chart gives an idea about average occupancy.


Table


City 180 14


Delhi 11.1 4.7


Calcutta 5.4 .5


. Brand Awareness Indian consumers have become brand aware. This is a favourable condition for the growth of organized retailing.


4. Price Advantage Consumers in a country like India are very price conscious. Departmental stores are also focused on low cost high volume mantra. So India offers an opportunity for the growth of the organized departmental stores.


5. Oriental Mindset Consumers in India feel themselves obliged to buy something whenever they enter a store. This leads to extensive window shopping, Indian consumers prefer to do window shopping rather than actually entering the shop and examining the product range.


6. Threshold Value and Perceived Value The above phenomenon represents the concept of the threshold value and the perceived value. Threshold value can be taken as a virtual concept of the store the in the consumer mindset. The perceived value of a store may be defined as the image generated in the mindset of the consumer after examining the exterior of the shop. The consumer will select the store only if the perceived value of the store exceeds that of the threshold value of the store. It may be noted that both the threshold value and the perceived value of a store are functions of the cultural background of the consumer. As for example, for a consumer with a high disposable income the perceived value of pantaloon will exceed his threshold value of a garment shop but the perceived value of local garment shop selling garments at economic prices will not. Whereas for a village customer it might be just the opposite. With the above analogy, the store selection process of a consumer can be represented with the help of the following graph.


45F Threshold Value


Figure .


In the above diagram, the line OB represents the locus of all the points where perceived value is equal to the threshold value of the particular store. On the upper part of the line OB, the perceived value is more than the threshold value and hence represents the acceptance region, and the lower portion, on the other hand, with the same analogy, represents the region where the perceived value of the store is less than the threshold value and hence represents the rejection region.


E. THE INDIAN RETAILING SCENERIO


Evolution of Departmental Stores in Rural Area From Haats to Super Stores


The haats are a part and parcel of the rural village life. From different regions the buyers and sellers come together and transact various products. In case of the rural haats, a large range of products are available at a relatively cheaper price. The low price strategy is obtained by the high volume of purchase and eliminating of middleman in the channel. The penetration of branded products in village is quite high because of the company’s good supply chain management and the revolution of sachet converting the non-user to user. Superstores and organized retail chains also run on low price high volume strategy. Thus these superstores may be termed as a modified form of the haats and supermarkets. Hence we may infer that the conditions for the development of organized retail chain exist in India, even in the rural sector.


According to the data from KSA, the Indian retail spending in 000-01 was about Rs. 1,50,000 crores and the expected growth is about Rs. 18,00,000 crores by 005-06. The share of different sectors in Indian Retailing may be detailed as follows.





Figure Retailing By Sectors Source KSA TechnoPak Study on Indian Retailing


Thus, we see, the food and beverages section has the lion’s share in Indian retailing market. Still the organized retailing effort in India is concentrated most in sectors like apparels followed by durables and furniture segment.


The data from euro monitor suggests that while in 18 about 85% of the total retail; stores in US is organized, even in 000, approximately % of India’s retail chain is organized.


Source Euromonitor Study on Retailing


There are about 0 million retail outlets in India employing about 1 million people. India has the highest number of retail outlets per capita in the world but the retail space per capita is about sq. ft. one of the lowest in the world.


F. PERCEPTUAL MAPPING OF INDIAN RETAILING SCENERIO


Based on the factors detailed above we have depicted the position of India with respect to Organized Retailing. We have taken the base year as 10 and the current year as 00.


Environmental Factors.


Buying Power


To classify the buying power, we adapt the income classification model of NCAER. Keeping in view that higher the purchasing power, better is the opportunity, we assign following weights to different categories.


Very Rich Class � 4


Consuming Class �


Climbers �


Aspirants � 1


Destitutes � 0


We then multiply the respective ratings with the respective proportion of population and get the weighted score for buying power.


According to our formula, buying power in 11


= (0.84 + 0.1 + .7 + 7.41)/100 = .46


buying power in 001 is


= (1.54 + 5. + 41. + 18.81)/100 = .4


FDI Regulation


Higher the foreign stake is allowed, more favourable is the environment for the setup of organized retail chains, as setup of retail chains typically require high investment. We assign the following weights.


FDI Participation Allowed


Below 10% - (-5)


10% - 0% - (-4)


0% - 0% - (-)


0% - 40% - (-)


40% - 50% - (-1)


50% - 60% - 1


60% - 70% -


70% - 80% -


80% 0% - 4


0 % - 5


FDI inflow was not allowed in retailing in India in 11 but now 4% stake is allowed.


So, the scores for 11 and 001 would be (-5) and (-1).


Taxation System


Simpler is the taxation structure better would be the supply chain management for organized retailing. We assign the following weights


Unified taxation structure - +1


Differential taxation structure across states � (-1)


In 11, there were individual tax structures across the states. But now, with the implementation of VAT, the tax structure has become unified and simpler. Hence the scores would be (-1) and 1 for 11 and 001 respectively.


Township development


This is the proportion of planned township in India.


In our model, the total score function is the sum of the individual scores.


In 11, it was .46 -5 -1 = -.654


The total score in 001 is .4 -1 +1 = .4


Consumer Psyche Factors


Brand Awareness


We assign +1 if consumers are brand aware and (-1) if not. So, the scores in 11 and 001 would be (-1) and +1 respectively.


Ownership of Cars


More is the ownership of vehicles per persons, more favourable is the environment for organized retailing. As an example we have taken the weighted average of ownership of cars per persons in Delhi. If no. of persons/car be less than 6 ( the average no. of members in a family ), we may consider the situation as each family owning a car. In this case, the weight is considered as +1, otherwise (-1).


The total score would be -1-1 or (-) in 11 and 1+1= in 001.


The perceptual map will look like the following.


5


4








1


0


G1 -1


-


-


-4


-5


-6


-7


-8


-


- -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 - - -1 0 1 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 1 1 14 15 16


G


G1 = Consumer Psyche Axis G = Environmental Axis.


The first quadrant represents the most favorable condition for retailing development. We see from the perceptual map that India has entered this region.


G. Neural Network Architecture


Neural network is basically an emulation of the biological neural network. The artificial neurons may be thought of a flexible signal processing unit with some inputs and some outputs. The input at each node is multiplied with some weights and then summed up to produce an activation signal. Every artificial neuron has a predetermined threshold value. If the activation is more than the threshold value, then the neuron gets fired up and produces the output. This functionality of the artificial neuron is called Threshold Logic Unit or TLU and is originally proposed by McCulloch and Pitts, 14. The diagram of a TLU may be represented as follows.





As for example, if the inputs are represented by x1, x,….xn etc., and the weights be w1, w, ….. wn etc., the activation signal w may be represented as


a = ͧ wi.xi


If the threshold signal is represented by œ, the output will be represented by


y = 1 if a œ and


y = 0 if a œ


It may be noted that the input and the output may be approximated either as digital signal or as continuous signal.


Advantage of Neural Network Based Models


The advantage of the neural network over traditional statistical methods in case of data analysis can be summarized as follows.


1. Neural Network based model is an adaptive model, i.e., neural network based models can be trained with the actual data pattern. These models do not require any assumption to work upon.


. Neural network based models are flexible models. The parameters can be dynamically changed with the change in the actual data pattern, thus making them most suitable for the analysis of the complex retailing data.


. Neural Network based models are robust, i.e., these models are not affected by the presence of the disturbance in the actual data collected.


Training The Neural Network Models


Training the Neural Network Models essentially means adjusting the weights of the individual inputs as well as the threshold. If the threshold is also modified, it is approximated as weight and the resultant weight vector is called augmented weight vector. The learning can be primarily of two types, supervised and unsupervised. In case of supervised learning, the network is trained with some preexisting data pattern. In case of unsupervised learning, the existence of a preformatted pattern is not an absolute necessity.


There are numerous training algorithms available like hebb’s rule, gradient descent etc. and all them may be used with fair accuracy. In Error Minimization technique, an error function is defined typically in terms of the network parameters and then the error is minimized at each pass. Thus the values of the weights also keep on changing with each pass and ultimately the final output is obtained.


G. PROCESS MODEL OF RETAILING


We suggest that retailing should be perceived as a process. A process has some inputs and some outputs. In order to obtain the desired output based on the given set of inputs the process parameters need to be tuned up. A process may have some sub-processes. The process should be robust, i.e, the accuracy of the process should not be affected by the presence of noise in the system. Since retailing involves real world inputs full of uncertainty, the process modeled should be dynamic enough to align itself with the changing input data pattern. Instead of applying statistical techniques, we suggest retailing to be analyzed by a network based model. The traditional statistical models require a lot of assumptions to work upon and Secondly, traditional statistical models are inflexible and rigid. Once the parameters are tuned up, they can not be changed dynamically. Neural network based models are flexible and require no assumption to work on. They can be trained with the actual data pattern. The parameters can be changed any timed if the input data pattern is changed.


The retailing can be modeled as a process consisting of three sub-processes as follows.


Figure 1 Process Model of Retailing


H. CHOICE OF THE STORES


Choice of a store depends on the threshold value on the mindset of the consumer and the perceived value of the store in concern. If the perceived value of the store is greater than the threshold value in the mindset of the consumer, the consumer selects the store, otherwise not. Choice of a store is related to the targeting of consumer segments. As for example, if a gift shop retailer targets the 0-5 age group, he/she has to ensure that the store ambience should be such that no potential customer in this segment would be missed out.


The first sub process of the process model of retailing is modeling of the store choice parameters. This process is simulated with the help of a neural network. The input to the process is a weighted sum of three groups of inputs, namely,


1. In Store Philosophies


. Type of Involvement


. Consumer Psyche


In store philosophies involves the store parameters like store ambience, store decoration, stock keeping units, check out period, shelf apace organization etc. Type of involvement determines the type of good the consumer is going to buy � the low involvement products include grocery items, middle involvement products include items like textiles and the high involvement products may include items like consumer electronics. Consumer psyche is typically the attitude and expectation of the consumer on different parameters under consideration.


The consumer psyche can be modeled with the help of the three attribute model, as shown below.


+


Figure Tri-Component Attitude Model


The cognitive component is the knowledge and perception of the consumer towards the retail outlet, created by the experience with the store, either directly or indirectly. This cognitive component often takes the form of a belief or personal judgment.


The affective component, on the other hand consists of the attitude of the consumer towards the store, the attitudes being based on the cognitive components. Depending on the attitude, a consumer may see the store as favourable or unfavorable, as good or bad.


The conative component is concerned with the action of the individual � whether the consumer will select the store or not. The consumer has a general reservation about the nature of the store, created by the cognitive component. If the value perceived by the consumer be greater than this reserved value, the consumer will select the store, otherwise not.


These components can be modeled with the help of a threshold value and the perceived value. The cognitive component is essentially the threshold value, or the reservation in the mind of the consumer. The affective component is the perceived value, it signifies how the consumer perceives the store. If the cognitive and the affective component be symbolized by t and p respectively, then the conative component may be symbolized by


a = f(p - t), pt


= 0, otherwise


Where a is termed as the activation signal. The function can take any form depending on the context. If p t, i.e, the perceived value is more than the threshold value, the consumer will select the store and will take action accordingly.


The threshold value of the consumer can be quantified with the help of multi-attribute model as detailed below.


Threshold t = ᠖biei, where bi is the behaviour and ei is the expectation on the behaviour.


These behaviors are the consumer attitude formation components like in store philosophies. As for example, the behaviour may be the store ambience and ei may be the expectation of the consumer towards the store ambience. The threshold value of the consumer can be changed by changing the expectations on the behaviors.


Modeling the Store Choice Process with Neural Network Based Model


The store choice behavior can be modeled with the help of the neural network based model as detailed below.


 In store philosophy components, the consumer perception components and the type of involvement components will be fed to the net as input, each multiplied by a weight.


 The weight will represent the amount of importance given on that particular component.


 The threshold will be represented by a weighted sum of the in store philosophy components and the attitude components, as threshold is the function of both as discussed above.


 The factor which can not be modified by the retailer will be represented with a zero weight and will be excluded from modification.


 Organized retailers can afford to change the threshold by advertisement or other forms of consumer learning and hence for organized retailer, the threshold weights will be treated as variables.


 For small kirana shops, variation of the threshold is almost impossible and hence the threshold will be represented by zero weights.


 The neural net will modify the weights depending on the required output.


 The output of the net will be a set of weights or the final weight matrix. The final weight matrix will give the amount of importance to be placed on each parameter for success. These values will vary from store to store.


 The term ‘activation’ refers to the stimulus that leads to the consumer to choose the store.


 The activation function will be represented by a sigmoid function of the following shape instead of a step function. This is so because, the step function represents activation only if the perceived value is more than the threshold value. However, there may be cases like the non-availability of a particular product, so that the consumer chooses the store even if the threshold value is marginally higher than the perceived value.


Sigmoid f(x) = (1 + e-ßx)-1





Here x is represented by the difference between the perceived value and the


threshold value. The network is represented as follows.


Industry Matrix


The industry matrix we suggest is a modified form of that suggested by T. L. Wheelen and J. D. Hunger. The matrix will take the following shape.


Key Success Factor Rating Firm A Weight Firm A Score Firm B Weight Firm B Score











The key success factors represent the factors like in store philosophies, consumer psyche and consumer threshold, which can be modified and controlled by the retailer. Once the weights are assigned by running the neural network based model the above matrix can be filled up for a number of firms.


The next step is to get the perceptual positioning of different firms in the competitive environment. In this case we run a principal component analysis, wherein we would be able to classify the factors into two major groups and get the individual discriminate functions of each group. Once the individual group functions are known from the component analysis, the individual group scores of the firms will be determined.


Let us elaborate the same with the help of an example. Say, there were initially 0 factors namely x1, x, ......., x0. Now we propose to run a principal component analysis wherein we get two principal groups namely G1 and G. The discriminant function may be determined by the coefficients of the groups with respect to the factors.


Factors G1 G


x1 0.76


x 0.85


x 0.74


.


.


x10 0.5


x11 0.8


x1 0.764


.


x0 0.76


A Sample output of discriminant function


As we see from the above sample output, the discriminant function for group G1 is


G1 = 0.76x1 + 0.85x + ... + 0.5x10 and the discriminant function for the group G may be represented as G = 0.8x11 + 0.764x1 + ... + 0.76x0


The variables x1, x, ..., x0 represents the values of the weights for the factors. It would be possible for us to obtain individual group scores for the firms. We can then plot the scores in a two dimensional graph, a technique known as multidimensional scaling and hence identify the competitive positioning of different firms. The correlation discriminant function will give us an idea about the nature of the groups G1 and G. Say, for example, the group G1 is associated with in store philosophy variables and hence termed as in store philosophy and the group G is associated with consumer psyche variables and hence termed as consumer psyche. The ultimate graphical mapping will also tell us the strengths and the weaknesses of different firms, and hence will also give us an idea about the areas where the firms can possibly improve to attract more customers.


5


4








1


0


G1 -1


-


-


-4


-5


-6


-7


-8


-


- -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 - - -1 0 1 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 1 1 14 15 16


G


Figure A Sample Output in Multi-dimensional analysis


The above output suggests that the firm A is very good in G, but not so good in G1, whereas firm B is very good in G but not so good in G1. The firm C on the other hand is reasonably good in both G1 as well as G and is likely to attract more customers.


I. CHOICE OF PRODUCT ASSORTMENT


The choice of product assortment will also be modeled by a similar neural network based model where the weights assigned on individual inputs will determine the nature and the type of products to choose. This will be followed by an industry matrix and perceptual mapping of competitors as done before. As we see from the process diagram the input parameters in this process are


 Store Selection


o This parameter is determined by the store choice sub-process. It takes a value of 1 if the store is selected and 0 otherwise.


 Interaction Between demand and supply


 Consumer Psyche


o The same parameters as discussed in the above sub-process. Consumer perception and threshold plays a crucial role in the buying process and hence retailer has to give due importance while choosing the right product assortment.


Interaction between demand and supply


The interaction between demand and supply is an important component in the selection of the product assortment of the retailer. The term demand means the aggregate demand of the persons having adequate purchasing power and the term supply means the supply of the product by the manufacturers. Needless to say, it also takes into account the supply of the product by the competitors in that region.


In our model we define demand by the household spending in different sectors, whereas supply is characterized by the retail sales in that area. In a particular area, if the household spending is more than the retail sales then it signifies that the demand of that product is more than the supply of that particular product in that area. This additional demand is met by buying the same products from the neighborhood area. If the demand is less than the retail sales it signifies that there is a surplus demand of that product in that area.


The retailer should concentrate on products having surplus demand.


If the household expenditure is represented by h and the retail sales is represented by r, then the interaction between demand and supply is represented as a function of (h-r).


ids = f(h-r) if hr


= 0, otherwise.


The variable ids essentially represents the market potential of a particular product in a particular region This variable is fed into the neural network model. The function, however, may be linear as well as non-linear depending on the context of the problem.


 The function will assume the linear form where demand increases at a constant rate, given the supply is constant. Example is low involvement items like grocery items.


 The function will take the non-linear form where the demand increases at a decreasing or increasing rate, given the supply to be constant. Example is the luxury segment where often demand increases at an uneven rate.


The final weight matrix, as in the case before, will determine the amount of weights to be given to the individual components. These weights combined with the weights in the first sub-process As for example if the analysis shows that there demand for toothpaste


J. PURCHASE DECISION SUBPROCESS


The input to this process are purchase environment, product environment selection ( input from the previous process ) and last but not the least, consumer psyche, The final weight matrix, as before suggests the amount of importance to be placed on different factors.


Purchase Environment


The in store parameters are already covered in the store choice sub-process. This parameter represents the interaction between the customers and the sales people in the store.


Customer Segmentation for a retail store


Customer segmentation is a vital ingredient in a retail organizations marketing recipe. It can offer insights into how different segments respond to shifts in demographics, segments fashions and trends. For example it can help classify customers in the following


1. Customers who respond to new promotions and new product launch and discount.


. Customers who are not planned what to buy


. Customers who show propensity to purchase specific products


4. The customers who compare the products before buying..


Salespersons Segmentation in retail store


(i) Information kiosks These are individuals who behave like kiosks. They are passive providers of information. Information is obtained only after a button is pushed.


(ii) Box pushers These salespeople are out to sell anything, without knowing the shopper’s requirements. They push the merchandise available in the store.


(iii)The warriors These salespeople consider shoppers as the enemy that needs to be conquered. It is a ‘we and they’ situation.


(iiii)The shopper-friendly This type is not found in large numbers, but are liked by shoppers. They consider and ask for the requirements of the shoppers and make shopping a rewarding endeavour.


Knowledge of Sales Person High The warrior and the customers who compare product before purchase Shopper-friendly, customers with specific product need.


Low Box purchase and the customers who are not planned what to buy Information kiosk and the customer who responses on discount, new product launch and new promotion.


Not pre determined Pre determined


Type of customers in terms of buying behavior


K. PUTTING IT ALTOGETHER


The ultimate strategy of the retailer will depend on the selection of weights from all sub-processes. It may be clarified with an example, Say, in the first sub-process analysis, a retailer sees storing kid’s product and related in store environment would be helpful for selection of that stores. In the second sub-process analysis, suppose he sees that more stress should be given on bicycle segment. The type of salespeople to be employed would be determined in the third process with the help of the matrix suggested. This, ultimately leads to the success of the retailer.


L. EXAMPLE RURAL / URBAN STRATEGY


The following matrix would identify the gross buying behavior of the rural and urban consumers and help retailers choose a set of factors to be banked upon. The amount of importance to be placed on these individual factors would be determined by placing these factors in the above neural network based process model.


The following psyche matrix illustrates the buying habit of the rural and urban consumers.


High Involvement


 Price conscious


 Word of Mouth


 Faith on Retailer


 Low Brand Comparison


 Brand Comparison


 Quality Consciousness


 Store Perception


Medium Involvement


 Low price.


 Faith on the retailer


 No Brand Comparison


 Eye catching posters


 Price


 Quality


 Brand Comparison


Low Involvement


 Low Price


 Low Price


 Attractive Packaging


 Visual Merchandising


Rural consumers Urban consumers


Rural Consumer Analysis


Low Involvement Products


The consumers are more price conscious. As for example, a rural consumer will go for unbranded salt rather than going for branded salts.The challenge of the retailer in this segment is thus to offer standard products at low price. The margin of the retailer should be obtained from low price high volume strategy.


Medium Involvement Product


Rural consumers are not very choosy on the brands. The retailer should help the customer in choosing the brand by providing information on the features of the brands, recent fads and values associated with the product.


High Involvement Product


In this segment, the consumers are not brand conscious. Word of mouth plays a very crucial role in store selection. The retailer should help the consumers to select the right product. The retailer should try to offer more value for money by combining different brands or models so that it is attractive for the rural consumers.


Urban Segment


Low Involvement Product


Consumers are price conscious, but visual merchandising plays a crucial role in this segment. Consumers are likely to select the stores having good shelf display and low price offerings.


Medium Involvement Segment


Consumers are brand conscious and they also go for value for money. The consumers are likely to select the stores having wide range of products. However, the urban consumer class also consists of the rich class segment and hence the product range should contain both the value for money brands and the up-market brands.


High Involvement Product


The consumers are choosy about the brands and hence the product basket should contain a wide range of brands. At the same time the product width is also a necessity. The service offered by the retailer and other intangible benefits like special attention to kids and ladies, proper seating arrangement, TV for engaged shopping also play a crucial role in the selection.


Based on the above analysis, the retailer strategy may be presented in the form of the following matrix.


High Involvement





 Help Consumers Choose a Brand.


 Provide Adequate Information.


 Try to cash on different offers.


 Build Trust with the Consumers.





 Wide Range of Brands


 Product Depth in each range.


 Make the Shop Visually Attractive.


 Offer Excellent Service.


 Offer Intangible Benefits.


Medium Involvement


 Help Consumers to choose the Product.


 Stock ‘Value For Money Range’ products with proper depth and width.


 Placing eye catching posters in proper place





 Short Check Out Time.


 Shelf Space Management.


 In Store Communication


 Proper Brand Assortment


Low Involvement


 Increase Low Price Product Width.





 Minimize Checkout Time.


 Visual Merchandising Management.


 Increase Low Price Product Depth and Width.


Rural Urban


Since the rural consumers are mostly price conscious than feature conscious, the large scale discount stores are likely to be a great success in the rural areas. These stores can afford to offer the low price based on standardized product assortment as well as high volume.


Suman please include this point on model if u can and modify I made the model


Model


Relate customer segmentation and type of salesperson in a superstore


1. www.blonnet.com/bline/00/0/17/stories/0001700050800.htm


Involvement has been defined along different dimensions. Laurant and Kapferer (185) define involvement as a multifaceted construct having five dimensions of perceived importance and risk of the product class, subjective probability of making a mis-purchase, symbolic or sign value attributed by the consumer to a product class, hedonic value of the product class, and interest. Purchase involvement is expected to affect consumer decision processes from pre-search to post-search as well as attitudes and behaviours towards purchasing (Slama and Taschian, pp.7). They define involvement as the self-relevance of purchasing activities to the individual. The degree of relevance or ‘involvement’ determines the consumer’s level of motivation to search for knowledge or information about a product or service (Schiffman & Kanuk, 17).





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Thursday, May 26, 2011

Highschool Vs. College

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A countless number of high school students anticipate graduation day and the new life experiences that come with it. Most of the undergraduates fantasize about what they are going to encounter after graduation. Many believe that they will go on to college, while a few will go directly to work. Those that look forward to college may think about what careers they will go into, if they are going to move away, and other various concerns. Then the day finally comes and they graduate. They generally celebrate by participating in graduation ceremonies and graduation parties. The summer months usually fly by, and it is time to start school again, college, a different experience. The transition from high school to college is often a shock to the freshman’s system. Some of the encounters will be familiar to those in high school, while others will be different. The chief similarities and dissimilarities are freedom, attitude, workload, and classes.


Colleges usually grant their students more freedom than high school. High school administration is strict on tardiness, absences, and skips. A student that receives too many tardies will most likely receive a detention. An excessive amount of absences many cause the student to be dropped from the course. Skips will lead to suspensions. Disciplinary actions are taken to these and many times the parent or guardian is informed. In college, most professors do not pay attention to attendance, and disciplinary measures are not taken. A few teachers may count the absences against the student because they are not


taking part in the lecture. Participation points count as a part of their class. At both schools, violence, or even a hint of it will not be tolerated. High school and college, like any other public institution has a set of rules and regulations that everyone must respect and adhere to it. These regulations are similar in their objective, which is to create a safe and healthy learning environment. In high school the student’s parents or guardians are informed about the student’s progress. In college, it is the student that learns about his or her progress. A bad progress in either one of the schools will force the student to take the class over again. In high school there is a strict dress code and many try to challenge it. Usually the undergraduates may not wear anything to tight, revealing, or short. In college the student may wear whatever he or she pleases. In both schools the student may pick their courses. In high school the courses are limited because most are general eds, which are required to graduate. The student however is able to choose his or her electives. In college, the student has many courses to choose from. They select the classes that are necessary for their program. In high school the student is required to be at school five days a week at the same time every morning and leave at the same time in the afternoon. The time schedule is chosen for the person. In college, the students choose their time schedule by indicating at what time they want to take each class. Another transition from high school to college that students will notice will be how similar and different attitudes are.


In both schools, the students are transforming into young adults. They are maturing emotionally. They also began to take on more responsibly and become more independent. Many work and take care of daily chores. Cliques are a large part of


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high school. Many students strive to fit in and be well liked. In college, cliques usually do not exist. People are usually themselves and don’t try as much to blend in because they are more concentrated on their studies. In high school, students are around each other for many years, so they get to know each other and their personality. They may also become very judgmental of each other. They may spread rumors, be unpleasant to each other, and even start fights. They are still somewhat immature. In college, the students are usually more mature as they are put out into the real world. In high school, many may believe that they are learning for their parents and teachers. In college, the students realize that they are learning for themselves and that they determine their own future. Another important factor that has many similarities and differences between high school and college is workload.


The workload between the two schools differs. In college the student may be forced to support himself or herself fully by working and go to school full time. A few of these students may even have children to take care of. This creates additional workload, which may be stressful and overwhelming. In high school, the student usually lives with the parent or the guardian and do not have children. In high school, homework is often assigned, collected and graded. Homework is a large part of the final grade. In college, it is rare to be assigned and collected. Homework that is assigned, but not collected, is usually to the students benefit to complete, because it prepares him or her for the test. In both schools there are quizzes and tests, which count as a large part of the final grade. College tests usually cover much more material than high school ones. In high school most of the time is spent doing homework. In college, most of the time is spent studying.


High school students have a steady workload with six classes. The college student’s workload depends on the difficulty of the course and the amount of credit hours he or she takes.


High school courses are different from the college ones. High school has one program for all the students, while college is selective. There is a good reason for this, because, how else would a young person find out what they like and at what they are good at. There is also a difference in pace. First of all, a class that isn’t an elective usually lasts about ten months and is slowly paced. Young people are expected to complete high school in four years, while college can be attended at a student’s own pace. The high school class session is relatively short, about forty-five minutes. College courses are faster paced. A student finishes a class in one semester, which is about four months long. The class session is also longer, depending on how many credits it is, but they usually only go to that class two or three times a week. In both schools, the student has to take all the required classes to graduate. In college the student also pays for the classes they take. The amount of money they pay depend on the school and if they are a resident or not. High school courses are for free because they are paid with tax money. In both schools the students register for classes. In high school the students register in a group with their counselors assisting them. In college the most students register on phone or the web. In college some classes may be taken online, while in high school a student may not take any online. In high school all the classes are in the same building. In college, the classes may be in several different buildings, even be a few miles apart from each other. In high school, classes contain a certain age group that most people fit into. In college


the different age groups may vary from high school seniors to senior citizens.


High school and college have numerous similarities and differences. It may take time to adjust to some of the variations. Some of the transformations, the students will enjoy such as the freedom and picking their own schedule. Some of the changes the students will dislike such as paying for school and having faster paced classes. The transition may take time, but many students enjoy it.








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The Death of Marylin Monroe

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The Death of Marilyn Monroe


Critical Essay


Choose a poem that deals with the themes of responsibility and innocence in an interesting way. Show how the poet’s techniques help to convey these themes effectively.


An extremely thought provoking example of a poem which deals with the themes of responsibility and innocence in an interesting way is “The Death of Marilyn Monroe” by poet Edwin Morgan. The poem centres around Hollywood sex icon Marilyn Monroe and how the life she lived and the people she met may have, in some way, contributed to her eventual death in 16.


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The poem opens dramatically with four questions, written one after the other, conveying how the public reacted when they discover Monroe’s death. This has the excellent effect of portraying to the reader the themes of responsibility and innocence.


“What innocence? Whose guilt? What eyes? Whose breast?”


Morgan uses the word’s “innocence” and “guilt” to further these themes and to emphasise just how childlike he believed Monroe to be. He also uses words like “eyes” and “breast” to create sexual undertones, which also emphasise and convey these themes further.


In comparison to line one � lines two and three slow the pace right down and create a sense of vulnerability and weakness in Monroe which isn’t present in the first two lines.


“Crumpled orphan, Nembutal bed


white hearse, Los Angeles”.


Morgan uses the metaphor “Crumpled orphan” in further portraying this image of innocence. Morgan portrays Monroe as a child, a child that is broken down because of the life she leads. This idea of her child-like innocence is continued in the phrase “white hearse” which is usually associated with a child’s death. It is here that Morgan first introduces the theme of responsibility for her death.


In line five, Morgan significantly speeds up the pace of the poem by employing a similar idea that he used in the opening line, only instead of using question marks he uses exclamation marks. He does this to try and place the responsibility for Monroe’s deaths on what he believes are the most likely suspects.


Di Maggio! Los Angeles! Miller! Los Angeles! America!”


Here, Morgan repeats “Los Angeles” and as Los Angeles is the centre of the American film industry, he is placing partial responsibility for Monroe’s death upon it.


In line five Morgan uses a hint of irony in saying that for Monroe, death was the only protector from the life that she led suggesting that she led a life so unbearable and awful that death was seen as a guardian and not a killer.


“That Death should be the only protector”


It is interesting to note that Morgan uses a capital letter for ‘death’, which emphasises and protrudes the word that has an eye-catching effect.


The next sub-theme Morgan identifies is that of uncertainty. He introduces this in line eleven and personifies it. This has the effect of increasing the idea of Monroe’s lack of confidence and perplexity. The uncertainty, in this instance, is personified as a voyeur that watches her every move, gradually bringing her ever closer to her death.


“That lonely Uncertainty should limp up, grinning, with


bewildering barbiturates, and watch her undress and lie down”.


Morgan also employ’s the use of alliteration in “bewildering barbiturates” to further accentuate the confusion of Monroe.


Morgan brings up the theme of responsibility again in lines fourteen and fifteen as we see Monroe is calling for something that will “dissolve her”.


“Call for him to strengthen her with what could only


dissolve her!”


The author is very clever here in using personification. He personifies “him” as the drugs that Monroe takes and as drugs are bad for your health, they gradually “dissolve her” and eventually kill her. So we see here that Morgan is now placing partial responsibility for Monroe’s death on the drugs that she was taking. The exclamation mark after “dissolver her” also contributes in it’s effectiveness.


Up until now, Morgan has just brushed the surface of Monroe’s death and has never really commented directly on it. He begins in line twenty, where he emphasises the importance of communication in people’s lives and how it helps to talk to people and discuss problems with friends.


“Let no-one say communication is a cantword”.


Morgan is trying to say that Monroe may not have died if she had just spoken to someone about her problems instead of keeping it all to herself. Morgan is now saying that Monroe might also be partially or wholly responsible for her death.


If there’s one thing I have noticed about this poem, it is the strong sense of irony portrayed throughout each stanza. Line thirty is an excellent example of this as Morgan seems to have finally decided that Monroe herself is responsible for her death but there is such a strong sense of irony present that the reader finds it hard to accept.


“And so she was responsible”


This short, ironic line prepares the reader for the closing lines of the poem. The conclusion to this poem is very similar to the opening line, in that � a number of questions are asked, one after the other, circulating around the main themes of innocence and responsibility.


“And if she was not responsible, not wholly responsible, Los


Angeles? Los Angeles? Will it follow you around?”


Unlike the opening line, these closing few lines have a much slower pace and ask more impersonal questions. Morgan has used repetition again in “Los Angeles” but this time replaces the exclamation mark with a question mark and asking the rhetorical question � “Will it follow you around?” creates the same sense of voyeurism as earlier on in the poem.





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